|Scientific Name:||Coregonus huntsmani Scott, 1987|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Alfonso, N., Tonn, B., Cox, N.A. & Rand, P.S.|
The species is listed as Critically Endangered because it is now restricted to three interconnected lakes, in the Petite Rivière in Nova Scotia, with an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 74 km². The major threats to the species are the introduced Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and Chain Pickerel (Esox niger), pollution caused by leaching of domestic waste and the dam which stops the species migrate back out to sea (making the species only known from a single location). The species became extirpated from the Tusket River due to dams, over harvesting and acid deposition (rain). It has been introduced into Anderson Lake, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, on an experimental basis, however life cycle closure has not been confirmed at this new location (COSEWIC 2010). The Anderson Lake population can be considered as part of the species wild native population after it has produced viable offspring, and after a five year period.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||The species is endemic to eastern Canada, where it is now restricted to three lakes (Hebb, Milipsigate and Minamkeak) in the upper Petite Rivière watershed, near Bridgewater, Nova Scotia (COSEWIC 2010). The historic range includes the entire Petite Rivière watershed and the Tusket-Annis watershed, Yarmouth County, Nova Scotia where it is now extirpated. According to COSEWIC (2010), a few strays from the three lakes have been caught in lower sections of the Petite Rivière. A second population of Atlantic Whitefish has been introduced to Anderson Lake, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, on an experimental basis, however life cycle closure has not been confirmed at this new location. Its EOO is estimated at 74 km² (based on a minimum convex polygon around the lakes), and given that the lakes are interconnected, it is considered as one location, based on the current threats to the species.|
Native:Canada (Nova Scotia)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size of this species is not known, but is considered to be very low (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2016). Historically, the species was commonly caught in the Petite Rivière estuary and in the the Tusket River basin (COSEWIC 2010). The Tusket River population apparently declined rapidly in the 1940s and 1950s and it is now considered extirpated, possibly due to the combined effects of construction and operation of the Tusket hydroelectric dam, poaching, and river acidification (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2016). A recent study suggests that the genetic effective population size in the Petite Rivière is between 18 and 38 individuals, among the lowest of any coregonid fish species examined (Cook 2012).|
Approximately 12,000 captive-reared individuals of the species have been introduced into Anderson Lake, but there is no estimate of the present abundance and no confirmation of their self-sustainability (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2016).
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Historically anadromous, adults were reported from estuarine and sea waters during the summer and migrated into fresh water to spawn during the autumn months, after spawning, at least some Atlantic Whitefish were known to spend the winter in fresh water before descending into tidal waters the following spring (COSEWIC 2010). The species is land-locked in the Petite Rivière lakes and connecting streams where they complete their life cycle.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Movement patterns:||Full Migrant|
|Use and Trade:||Historically harvested for personal consumption in the Tusket River.|
|Major Threat(s):||The current major threats to the species are the introduced Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) and Chain Pickerel (Esox niger), urbanization impacts such as pollution caused by leaching of domestic waste, and barriers to fish passage (COSEWIC 2010, Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2016). Dams blocking the species access to marine environment has also limited the species range. The species was extirpated from the Tusket River due to dam construction, over-harvesting and acid deposition.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is listed as Endangered under the Species at Risk Act and is protected under provincial legislation, namely the Environment Act and the Endangered Species Act. As mandated by the Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Strategy has been prepared by Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2016). A second population of Atlantic Whitefish has been introduced to Anderson Lake, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, on an experimental basis, however life cycle closure has not been confirmed at this new location (COSEWIC 2010).|
Cook, A.M. 2012. Addressing key conservation priorities in a data poor species. Dalhousie University.
COSEWIC. 2010. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Atlantic Whitefish Coregonus huntsmani in Canada. . Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada. 2016. Amended Recovery Strategy for the Atlantic Whitefish (Coregonus huntsmani) in Canada. Species at Risk Act Recovery Strategy Series. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
|Citation:||Smith, K. 2017. Coregonus huntsmani. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T5379A81422722.Downloaded on 24 February 2018.|
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