Conus zebroides 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Mollusca Gastropoda Neogastropoda Conidae

Scientific Name: Conus zebroides Kiener, 1845

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-06-09
Assessor(s): Tenorio, M.J.
Reviewer(s): Monnier, E., Seddon, M.B. & Peters, H.
Contributor(s): Bouchet, P.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Seddon, M.B. & Peters, H.
In 1996 this species was assessed as Vulnerable D2, based on its limited range, however, there is no evidence that populations are in decline. Nevertheless this species only occurs in a few bays and is considered uncommon. It has an attractive shell and lives in shallow water where it can be easily gathered. The potential threats of increased oil drilling activities and collection could cause population declines in future, but not quite to the extent that the species is likely to become Extinct or Critically Endangered within a short time frame. Therefore, it has been listed as Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Angola where it is restricted to a narrow range within a few bays in the provinces of Benguela and Namibe: Lobito to São Nicolau and Baía do Chapéu Armado, a distance of approx. 540 km (Monteiro et al. 2004).
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:220
Lower depth limit (metres):3
Upper depth limit (metres):2
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are no records of population levels for this species in the literature
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in shallow water of 2–3 m (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011).  Adults of this species will grow to 40 mm but will typically be less than this (Monteiro et al. 2004).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: In common with all Conus species and other molluscs, the shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market.  This attractive shell is not common but also occurs in areas not frequented by many tourists (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011).  Prices are typically in the medium range (Rice 2007).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is restricted to a narrow range within a few bays in the provinces of Benguela and Namibe in Angola. The threats are unknown. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011). This attractive species is of restricted range and occurs in shallow water making it more susceptible to gathering.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is restricted in its range and would benefit from further research into abundance, level of off-take and threats before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.

Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.

Citation: Tenorio, M.J. 2013. Conus zebroides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T5273A3014429. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
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