|Scientific Name:||Conus zebroides|
|Species Authority:||Kiener, 1845|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Monnier, E., Seddon, M.B. & Peters, H.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Seddon, M.B. & Peters, H.|
In 1996 this species was assessed as Vulnerable D2, based on its limited range, however, there is no evidence that populations are in decline. Nevertheless this species only occurs in a few bays and is considered uncommon. It has an attractive shell and lives in shallow water where it can be easily gathered. The potential threats of increased oil drilling activities and collection could cause population declines in future, but not quite to the extent that the species is likely to become Extinct or Critically Endangered within a short time frame. Therefore, it has been listed as Near Threatened.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to Angola where it is restricted to a narrow range within a few bays in the provinces of Benguela and Namibe: Lobito to São Nicolau and Baía do Chapéu Armado, a distance of approx. 540 km (Monteiro et al. 2004).|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There are no records of population levels for this species in the literature|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species occurs in shallow water of 2–3 m (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011). Adults of this species will grow to 40 mm but will typically be less than this (Monteiro et al. 2004).|
|Use and Trade:||In common with all Conus species and other molluscs, the shells of this species are traded for the specialist Conus shell market. This attractive shell is not common but also occurs in areas not frequented by many tourists (E. Monnier pers. comm. 2011). Prices are typically in the medium range (Rice 2007).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is restricted to a narrow range within a few bays in the provinces of Benguela and Namibe in Angola. The threats are unknown. Oil prospection has been going on along the Angolan coast, but there is no further development on this at the moment, so this is not considered a current threat; it may be more significant in the future if oil drilling commences (M. J. Tenorio and S. Veldsman pers. comm. 2011). This attractive species is of restricted range and occurs in shallow water making it more susceptible to gathering.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is restricted in its range and would benefit from further research into abundance, level of off-take and threats before any action plan can be formulated. There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.|
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Monteiro, A., Tenorio, M.J. and Poppe, G.T. 2004. The Family Conidae, The West African and Mediterranean species of Conus. In: Poppe, G.T and Groh, K. (eds), A Conchological Iconography, pp. 270. ConchBooks, Hackenheim.
Rice, T. 2007. A Catalog of Dealers' Prices for Shells: Marine, Land and Freshwater. Sea and Shore Publications.
|Citation:||Tenorio, M.J. 2013. Conus zebroides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 04 May 2015.|
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