Conraua goliath 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Amphibia Anura Conrauidae

Scientific Name: Conraua goliath
Species Authority: (Boulenger, 1906)
Common Name(s):
English Giant Slippery Frog, Goliath Frog
Rana goliath Boulenger, 1906
Taxonomic Source(s): Frost, D.R. 2013. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.6 (9 January 2013). Electronic Database. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Available at:

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2d+3d ver 3.1
Year Published: 2004
Date Assessed: 2004-04-30
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Jean-Louis Amiet
Reviewer(s): Global Amphibian Assessment Coordinating Team (Simon Stuart, Janice Chanson and Neil Cox)
Listed as Endangered because the number of mature individuals is believed to have declined by more than 50% over the last three generations because of harvesting for food, and it is projected to decline by a similar amount over the next three generations. A generation is assumed to be approximately five years.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Vulnerable (VU)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The world's largest frog is known only from south-western Cameroon from the region of Nkongsamba, and south to Monte Alen in mainland Equatorial Guinea. It is generally found at low to medium altitudes, below 1,000m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It has decreased significantly as a result of harvesting for food.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It lives in or near fast-flowing rivers and streams in rainforest, preferring warmer, slower rivers than Conraua robusta, though faster rivers than C. crassipes. It can survive in secondary habitats close to rivers, as well as in forest, but not in very heavily degraded areas (farm bush). Breeding occurs in streams and small rivers. The young rest by flowing water during the day. Around Nkongsamba in western Cameroon, C. goliath, C. crassipes and C. robusta occur sympatrically.
Systems: Terrestrial; Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is part of the Central African bushmeat trade, and one estimate states that 300 animals are exported to the USA annually, mainly for frog-jumping competitions.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The most important threat to this species is hunting for food, and new, sophisticated traps for catching this species are now being used in the Nkongsamba area of Cameroon. Animals are also imported from Cameroon to the USA on a regular basis by animal dealers for zoos, the pet trade and competitive frog races (one estimate of this trade is 300 animals per year). It is also adversely affected by the loss of forest habitat for agriculture, logging, and human settlements, as well as by sedimentation of its breeding streams.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It presumably occurs in several protected areas, and is confirmed from Monte Alen National Park in Equatorial Guinea. Measures are needed to work with local communities to manage the harvest at sustainable levels. A captive-breeding programme should be considered.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
6. Livelihood, economic & other incentives -> 6.1. Linked enterprises & livelihood alternatives

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Amiet, J.-L. 1972. Notes faunistiques, ethologistiques et ecologistiques sur quelques amphibiens anoures du Cameroun. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun: 127-153.

Amiet, J.-L. 1975. Ecologie et distribution des amphibiens anoures de la region de Nkongsamba (Cameroun). Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Yaoundé: 33-107.

Amiet, J.-L. 1986. La Batrachofaune sylvicole d'un secteur forestier du Cameroun: la région de Yaounde. Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle: 29-42.

Amiet, J.-L. and Perret, J.-L. 1969. Contributions a la faune de la region de Yaounde (Cameroun). II - Amphibiens Anoures. Annales de la Faculté des Sciences du Cameroun: 117-137.

De la Riva, I. 1994. Anfibios anuros del Parque Nacional de Monte Alen, Rio Muni, Guinea Ecuatorial. Revista Espanola de Herpetologia: 123-139.

Gewalt, W. 1977. Einige Bemerken uber Fan, transport und Haltung des Goliathfrosches (Conrauna goliath Boulenger). Der Zoologische Garten (N.F), Jena: 161-192.

Herrmann, H.-W., Böhme, W., Herrmann, P.A., Plath, M., Schmitz, A. and Solbach, M. 2005. African Biodiversity Hotspots: the amphibians of Mt. Nlonako, Cameroon. Salamandra 41(1/2): 61-81.

IUCN. 2004. 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 23 November 2004.

Joger, U. 1982. Zur Herpetofaunistik Kameruns (II). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 33: 313-342.

Lamotte, M. and Perret, J.-L. 1968. Revision du genre Conraua Nieden. Bulletin de l'Institution Fondamental d'Afrique Noire: 1603-1644.

Lamotte, M., Perret, J.-L. and Dzieduszycka, S. 1959. Contribution a l'etude des batraciens de l'ouest Africain. IX. Les formes larvaires de Petropedetes palmipes, Conraua goliath et Acanthixalus spinosus. Bulletin de l'Institution Fondamental d'Afrique Noire: 762-776.

Lasso, C.A., Rial, A.I., Castroviejo, J. and de la Riva, I. 2002. Herpetofauna del Parque Nacional de Monte Alen (Rio Muni, Guinea Ecuatorial). Graellsia: 21-34.

Pawley, R. 1987. The management of the goliath frog, Conraua goliath: a goliath problem? Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society: 96-97.

Perret, J.-L. 1957. Observations sur Rana goliath Boulenger. Bulletin de la Societe Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles: 98-101.

Perret, J.-L. 1960. Etudes herpetologiques africaines II. Bulletin de la Societe Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles: 93-100.

Perret, J.-L. 1966. Les Amphibiens du Cameroun. Zoologische Jahrbuecher fuer Systematik: 289-464.

Perret, J.-L. 1987. Observations on Rana goliath Boulenger. Bulletin of the Chicago Herpetological Society: 98-101.

Perret, J.-L. and Mertens, R. 1957. Etude d'une collection herpetologique faite au Cameroun de 1952 a 1955. Bulletin de l'Institution Fondamental d'Afrique Noire: 548-601.

Sabater-Pi, J. 1962. La Rana goliath; aportacion a suestudio. Zoo, Revista del Parque de Barcelona: 23-25.

Sabater-Pi, J. 1967. Notas sobre la ecologia de la rana gigante de Rio Muni (Conraua goliath, Boulenger). Zoo, Revista del Parque de Barcelona: 24-25.

Sabater-Pi, J. 1985. Contribution to the biology of the giant frog (Conraua goliath, Boulenger). Amphibia-Reptilia: 143-153.

Citation: Jean-Louis Amiet. 2004. Conraua goliath. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T5263A11121365. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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