Addax nasomaculatus 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Addax nasomaculatus
Species Authority: (de Blainville, 1816)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Addax
French Addax, Antilope Blanche

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A2cd; C1+2a(ii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Newby, J. & Wacher, T.
Reviewer(s): Mallon, D.P. (Antelope Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment)
Listed as Critically Endangered as the species is believed to have undergone a decline well exceeding 80% over the past three generations (21 years). The total population is estimated at less than 300 individuals across the range, with the majority of the population in the Termit/Tin Toumma region of Niger. The population continues to decline due to ongoing threats of hunting and habitat loss. Along with the Dama Gazelle (Nanger dama), this species is considered to be the Saharan bovid species at highest risk of extinction in the near future.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Addax were formerly widespread in the Sahelo-Saharan region of Africa, west of the Nile Valley, and present in suitable habitats in all countries sharing the Sahara Desert (Newby in press). As with other ungulates of the Sahelo-Saharan fauna, the Addax has undergone an unprecedented reduction in geographical range over the past century. Today, the only known remaining population survives in the Termit/Tin Toumma region of Niger. However, there are sporadic records of small isolated groups and individuals from eastern Air Mountains/Western Ténéré desert in Niger, and from the Equey region of western Chad (Newby in press). Possible rare vagrants from these areas may be seen in north Niger, southern Algeria and Libya (Newby in press). There are continued rumours of Addax along the Mali/Mauritania border (Majabat Al Koubra), but no confirmed sightings for several years. However, in early March, 2007, the fresh tracks of about 15 Addax were seen in central Mauritania, in an area where they had not been reported for over 20 years (R. Vernet in Newby in press).
Countries occurrence:
Chad; Mauritania; Niger
Regionally extinct:
Algeria; Egypt; Libya; Sudan; Western Sahara
Morocco; Tunisia
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Although long extinct in North Africa, Addax were still present in fair numbers in Mauritania, Mali, Niger and Chad up until the late 1960s and early 1970s (Newby in press). Today, the total global population is estimated at probably less than 300 animals surviving in the wild, distributed unevenly along a narrow, 600-km-long band lying between Termit/Tin Toumma in Niger and the Bodélé Depression in Chad (Newby in press). Ground and aerial surveys of Termit/Tin Toumma carried out in 2004 (Wacher et al. 2004) indicate a population of between 100 and 200 head. A total count carried out by SOS Faune du Niger in October 2004 returned a figure of 128 Addax for a little under 10,000 km² of prime habitat in Termit, Niger (see Newby in press). Otherwise, Addax seem to retain a highly fragmented distribution, based on sightings of individuals and small groups.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The most desert-loving large ungulate, occurring in areas of extreme temperature and aridity (less than 100 mm annually) (Newby in press). With the exception of truly mountainous areas, Addax have been recorded from all major habitat types in the Sahara, from gravelly and sandy plains, to dune fields, sandy basins and depressions, pans and wadi systems; their preference is for harder, packed sands and flatter areas within and between dune fields that support perennial vegetation (Newby in press; and references therein).

Addax are nomadic, wandering over large areas in search of grazing. In the Sahel, movements tend to be north-south in direction, i.e., from the more arid desert to the less arid sub-desert and Sahel (Gillet 1965; Newby 1978). In central Niger, movement may also be east-west, i.e., from the open desert towards the better-wooded and more varied habitats of the Aïr and Termit mountains (Hue 1960).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The primary factors in the decline of Addax are uncontrolled hunting and harassment. Drought and the extension of pastoralism into desert lands, thanks to the increase in wells, have also taken a heavy toll (Beudels-Jamar et al. 2005; Newby in press). Demographic factors (very small size of subpopulations, extreme fragmentation) are also expected to have an adverse effect.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Listed on CMS Appendix I, and included in the CMS Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes Action Plan (Beudels-Jamar et al. 2005). It is protected under national legislation in Morocco, Tunisia, and Algeria; in Libya and Egypt hunting of all gazelles is forbidden by law.

Although massive reserves, such as the Ahaggar and Tasilli in Algeria, the Aïr/Ténéré in Niger, the Ouadi Rimé-Ouadi Achim in Chad, and the newly established Wadi Howar N.P. in Sudan cover areas where Addax previously occurred, some are under-resourced and all no longer harbour Addax (Newby in press). Continued support for gazetted reserves in Chad and Niger, together with the establishment of new protected areas, especially along the Mali/Mauritania frontier (Majabat), Niger (Termit/Tin Toumma) and Chad (Bodélé, Egueï), is essential, but must be supported and combined with programmes to create incentives for the local people to protect wildlife wherever it is found (Newby in press).

Addax have been reintroduced to fenced sectors of protected areas in Tunisia (Bou Hedma NP) and Morocco (Souss-Massa: 70 animals released 1994-97, increased to c. 550 by 2007; Cuzin et al. in press). The first reintroduction in the wild is underway in Jebil National Park, Tunisia, in the Great Eastern Erg and another is planned in southern Morocco.

There are over 600 Addax in Europe, Libya (Sabratha), Egypt (Giza Zoo), North America, Japan and Australia in managed breeding programmes, and at least 1,000 more individuals are held in private collections and ranches in the United States and the Middle East (Newby in press, T. Jdeidi pers. comm.).

Listed in CITES Appendix I.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
8. Desert -> 8.1. Desert - Hot
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.1. International level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:Yes
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.2. Droughts
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Sport hunting/specimen collecting
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Beudels-Jamar, R., Devilliers, P., Lafontaine, R.-M. and Newby, J. 2005. Addax nasomaculatus. Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes. Status and perspectives. Report on the conservation status of the six Sahelo-Saharan antelopes (eds. R.C. Beudels, P. Devillers, R-M. Lafontaine, J. Devillers-Terschuren & M-O. Beudels). CMS SSA Concerted Action. 2nd Edn. CMS Technical Series Publication No 10, 2006. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.

Cuzin, F., Sehhar, E. A. and Wacher, T. 2007. Etude pour l'élaboration de lignes directrices et d'un plan d'action stratégique pour la conservation des ongulés au Maroc. Haut Commissariat aux Eaux et Forêts et à la Lutte Contre le Désertification (HEFLCD), Projet de Gestion des Aires Protégées (PGAP) et Banque Mondiale, Global Environment Facility (GEF). Two volumes.

Gillet, H. 1965. L'Oryx algazelle et l'Addax au Tchad. La Terre et la Vie 1965(3): 257-272.

Hue, R. 1960. L'addax dans la région du Ténéré. Travaux de l'Institut de Recherches Sahariennes 19: 157-160.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Mallon, D. P. and Kingswood, S. C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Newby, J. 2013. Addax nasomaculatus Addax. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. VI. Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer, and Bovids, pp. 566-571. Bloomsbury Publishing, London, UK.

Newby, J. E. 1978. The Ecological Resources of the Ouadi Rimé Ouadi Achim Faunal Reserve, Chad. Unpublished update to 1974 report to N'Djaména. FAO/UNDP.

Wacher, T., Newby, J., Houston, W., Spevak E., Barmou, M. and Issa, A. 2004. Sahelo–Saharan Interest Group Wildlife Surveys. Tin Toumma & Termit (February–March 2004). ZSL Conservation Report No. 5. The Zoological Society of London, London, UK.

Citation: Newby, J. & Wacher, T. 2008. Addax nasomaculatus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T512A13058429. . Downloaded on 01 September 2016.
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