Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Carnivora Canidae

Scientific Name: Chrysocyon brachyurus
Species Authority: (Illiger, 1815)
Common Name(s):
English Maned Wolf
Spanish Aguara Guazu, Borochi, Lobo De Crin
French Loup À Crinière

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Rodden, M., Rodrigues , F. & Bestelmeyer, S.
Reviewer(s): Sillero-Zubiri, C. & Hoffmann, M. (Canid Red List Authority)
Listed as Near Threatened as the current global population is estimated to number ~13,000 mature individuals, and is thought likely to experience a continuing decline nearing 10% over the coming decade largely as a result of ongoing habitat loss and degradation, road kills and other threats (see Paula et al. 2008). Almost qualifies as threatened under criterion C.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2004 Near Threatened (NT)
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Vulnerable (V)
1982 Vulnerable (V)
1965 Status inadequately known-survey required or data sought

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: The Maned Wolf inhabits the grasslands and scrub forest of central South America from the mouth of the Parnaiba River in north-eastern Brazil, south through the Chaco of Paraguay into Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and west to the Pampas del Heath in Peru (Dietz 1985). Beccaceci (1992) found evidence of Maned Wolves in Argentina as far south as the 30th parallel, and a sighting in the province of Santiago del Estero was recently reported (Richard et al. 1999). They probably range into northern Uruguay. Their presence in this country was confirmed through a specimen trapped in 1990 (Mones and Olazarri 1990), but there have not been any reports of sightings since that date (S. Gonzalez pers. comm.).
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Paraguay; Peru
Possibly extinct:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: A Population and Habitat Viability Assessment workshop held in 2005 estimated the total population of Maned Wolves at ~23,600 animals, including 21,745 in Brazil, 830 in Paraguay, and 660 in Argentina (Paula et al. 2008). Numbers in Bolivia are unlikely to exceed 1,000 animals.

With their primarily solitary habits and large home ranges, Maned Wolves are found in low densities throughout the range.
Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Maned Wolves favour tall grasslands, shrub habitats, woodland with an open canopy (cerrado), and wet fields (which may be seasonally flooded). Some evidence indicates that they may prefer areas with low to medium shrub density (Bestelmeyer 2000). Maned Wolves are also seen in lands under cultivation for agriculture and pasture. Daytime resting areas include gallery forests (Dietz 1984), cerrado and marshy areas near rivers (Bestelmeyer 2000; F. Rodrigues unpubl.). There is some evidence that they can utilize cultivated land for hunting and resting (A. Jácomo and L. Silveira, unpubl.), but additional studies are essential in order to quantify how well the species tolerates intensive agricultural activity.

Omnivorous, consuming principally fruits and small- to medium-sized vertebrates. Numerous authors (Dietz 1984; Carvalho and Vasconcellos 1995; Motta-Júnior et al. 1996; Azevedo and Gastal 1997; Motta-Júnior 1997; Rodrigues et al. 1998; Jácomo 1999; Santos 1999; Silveira 1999; Juarez and Marinho 2002; F. Rodrigues unpubl.) have investigated the diet of the Maned Wolf. These studies have all found a wide variety of plant and animal material in the diet, with about 50% of the diet comprising plant material and 50% animal matter. The fruit Solanum lycocarpum grows throughout much of the range and is a primary food source; other important items include small mammals (Caviidae, Muridae, Echimydae) and armadillos, other fruits (Annonaceae, Myrtaceae, Palmae, Bromeliaceae and others), birds (Tinamidae, Emberizidae and others), reptiles and arthropods. Although the frequency of plant and animal items found in faecal samples is approximately equal, the biomass of animal items is usually greater than that of plant items (Motta-Júnior et al. 1996; Santos 1999; F. Rodrigues unpubl.). Certain items, such as rodents and Solanum, are consumed year round, but the diet varies with food availability. At least occasionally, pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) are also consumed (Bestelmeyer and Westbrook 1998). In Jácomo's (1999) study, deer appeared in 2.4% of 1,673 samples analysed.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The most significant threat to Maned Wolf populations is the drastic reduction of habitat, especially due to conversion to agricultural land (Fonseca et al. 1994). In addition, habitat fragmentation causes isolation of subpopulations. Many Maned Wolves are killed on the nation's roads. Highways border many of the Conservation Units of the Brazilian cerrado, and drivers often do not respect speed limits. Reserves close to urban areas often have problems with domestic dogs. These dogs pursue and may kill Maned Wolves and can also be an important source of disease. Domestic dogs also possibly compete with the Maned Wolf for food. Interactions with humans also pose a threat to the Maned Wolf. Diseases, such as those mentioned above, can be important causes of mortality in the wild, but there is very little information available about the health of wild populations. In areas where there are domestic dogs, the problem is certainly greater.

There is no commercial use. Indications are that the use of Maned Wolf parts for medicinal purposes does not involve any sort of large-scale commercial transactions and is confined to native folk medicine.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is included on CITES Appendix II. Protected in Argentina (classified as Endangered on the Red List) and included on the list of threatened animals in Brazil (Bernardes et al. 1990). Hunting is prohibited in Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. Maned wolves are protected by law in many parts of their range, but enforcement is frequently problematic. Included in the United States Endangered Species list.

The species occurs in many protected areas in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and, possibly, Peru.

Assessors are not aware of any conservation actions specific to the Maned Wolf. However, they are the beneficiaries of broader attempts to protect the cerrado (for example, recent actions to reduce the impact of road kills in Brasilia).

Occurrence in captivity
As of 31 December 1999, 144 institutions reported a total of 412 maned wolves in captivity, including 203 males and 209 females.

Gaps in knowledge
Population surveys throughout the species' range are needed. The impact of human encroachment on suitable habitat is not clearly understood, and the suitability of agricultural land as maned wolf habitat needs to be investigated. The impact of disease processes on wild populations is not well understood.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
suitability: Suitable  
2. Savanna -> 2.2. Savanna - Moist
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.2. Artificial/Terrestrial - Pastureland
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: No decline ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive & other problematic species & genes -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species -> 8.1.2. Named species (Canis familiaris)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Medicine - human & veterinary
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

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Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Beccaceci, M. D. 1992. The maned wolf, Chrysocyon brachyurus, in Argentina. In: Matern, B. (ed.), 1991 International studbook for the maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger, 1811), pp. 50-56. Frankfurt Zoological Garden, Frankfurt, Germany.

Bernardes, A. T., Machado, A. B. M. and Rylands, A. B. (eds). 1990. Fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção. pp. 65 pp.. Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

Bestelmeyer, S. V. 2000. Solitary, reproductive and parental behavior of maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus). M.Sc. Thesis, Colorado State University.

Bestelmeyer, S. V. and Westbrook, C. 1998. Maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) predation on pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) in Central Brazil. Mammalia 62: 591-595.

Carvalho, C. T. and Vasconcellos, L. E. M. 1995. Disease, food and reproduction of the maned wolf - Chrysocyon brachyurus (Illiger) (Carnivora, Canidae) in southeast Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 12: 627-640.

da Fonseca, G. A. B., Rylands, A. B., Costa, C. M. R., Machado, R. B. and Leite, Y. R. 1994. Mamíferos Brasileiros sob Ameaça. In: G. A. B. Fonseca, A. B. Rylands, C. M. R. Costa, R. B. Machado and Y. R. Leite (eds), Livro vermelho dos mamíferos ameaçados de extinção, pp. 1-10. Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

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Motta-Júnior, J. C. 1997. Ecologia alimentar do lobo-guará, Chrysocyon brachyurus (Mammalia: Canidae). In: C. Ades (ed.), Anais de XV Encontro Anual de Etologia, pp. 197-209. Brazil.

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Citation: Rodden, M., Rodrigues , F. & Bestelmeyer, S. 2008. Chrysocyon brachyurus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4819A11097908. . Downloaded on 08 October 2015.
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