|Scientific Name:||Chondrostoma soetta|
|Species Authority:||Bonaparte, 1840|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Bianco, G. & Darwall, W. (Mediterranean Workshop, Dec. 2004)|
The lake populations have increasing difficulty in reaching the spawning places in the tributaries. Although the introduced subpopulations are thriving, the threat to the remaining severely fragmented natural population and spawning areas is high due to dam construction, pollution, water extraction and predation by cormorants and Silurus glanis. The area of occupancy (AOO) (based on the spawning grounds) is estimated at less than 500 km². It is locally extinct in Slovenia and the Isonzo river basin in Italy due to the introduction of Chondrostoma nasus, a practice still implemented.
|Range Description:||Restricted to northern Italy, the southern part of Switzerland. It has been introduced in some Italian lakes. It is locally extinct in Slovenia and the Isonzo river basin in Italy due to the introduction of Chondrostoma nasus, a practice still implemented.Recorded introductions into the rivers of central Italy were often a misidentification for C. genei. Several present records for C. soetta are probably a misidentification for C. nasus, due to similarities between these two species. As an example of how the alien species are spread now in Italy, in rivers from the Rovigo Province in eastern Italy, where C. soetta is still reported, the biomass of all native species was found to be about 22% of whole ichthyofauna.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Very different from one locality to another. It is locally extinct in Slovenia but still thriving in other parts of its range. This species is now becoming quite rare in the lakes of northern Italy and Switzerland (Lugano, Maggiore, Como, Iseo, Garda) mainly as result of interaction with alien species, especially Rutilus rutilus, which was introduced around 1990 and has become very common and is the subject of commercial fishing in several of these lakes. (Bianco, P. pers. comm). This species is also rarely found in rivers and has nearly disappeared in the main stretch of the Po basin, in the other rivers it forms very small populations and spawning occurs only in a few areas of each river (except in the Po).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A deepwater lacustrine species that also inhabits large rivers. It migrates from the lake to its tributaries for spawning in spring.|
|Major Threat(s):||Dams, water pollution and extraction, and introduction of alien species as Rutilus rutilus, Silurus glanis and Chondrostoma nasus. The reduction in suitable spawning places due to pollution (agriculture) and to water extraction is of major concern.Other threats to the species are predation by cormorants, where in several places of Italy have become a serious pest and destroyed a large amount of fishes, especially in torrents or small river were the fishes migrate to for reproduction. (Compiled by C.esare Puzzi from GRAIA, and P.G. Bianco pers comm.).|
|Conservation Actions:||Listed in Annex II of the European Union Habitats Directive and in the Appendix III of the Bern Convention.|
Bianco, P.G. 1995. Mediterranean endemic freshwater fishes of Italy. Biological Conservation 72: 159–170.
Bianco, P.G. 2002. Pesci, Boitani L., Corsi F., Falcucci A., Maiorano L., Marzetti I., Masi M., Montemaggiori A., Ottaviani D., Reggiani G., Rondinini C., Rete Ecologica Nazionale. Un approccio alla conservazione dei vertebrati italiani., , Università di Roma "La Sapienza", Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’Uomo; Ministero dell’Ambiente, Direzione per la Conservazione della Natura; Istituto di Ecologia Applicata. http://www.gisbau.uniroma1.it/REN, , , ,
Bianco, P.G. and Ketmaier V. 2001. Anthropogenic changes in the freshwater fish fauna in Italy with reference to the central region and Barbus graellsii, a newly established alien species of Iberian origin. Journal of Fish Biology 59: 190–208.
Grimaldi, E. and Polli, 1997. Lago Maggiore e Lago di Lugano. Ricerche sulla acque Italo Svizzere nel quadriennio 1992-1995. Commissione Italo-Svizzera per la Pesca 2: 83.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.
Maier, K-J., Zeh, M., Ortlepp, J. and Zbinden, S. 1995. Distribution et reproduction des espèces du genre Chondrostoma en Suisse: le nase (C. nasus), la sofie (C. toxostoma) et la savetta (C. soetta). In: Information concernant la pêche, No 53. Office fédéral de l'environnement, des forêts et du paysage, Bern, Switzerland.
Povz, M. 2002. Status of the freshwater fishes and lampreys in Slovenia. In: M.J. Collares-Pereira, I.G. Cowx & M.M. Coelho (eds). Conservation of Freshwater Fishes: Options for the Future. pp: 45–54. Fishing News Books, Oxford, U.K.
Puzzi, C.M., Trasforini, S., Sartorelli, M., Barenghi, B. and Zilio, A. 2001. Lake of Lugano: lymnological features and fish community analysis, with particular care of two allocthonous species, pike-perch (Stizosteidon lucioperca) and roach (Rutilus rutilus). Quaderni ETP 30: 39–48.
Turin, P. and Zanetti, M. 2001. Quali.quantitative evolution of freshwater fish populations in Rovigo Province (Veneto Region, NE Italy). [in Italian with English summary]. Quaderni ETP 30: 23–26.
Zeh, M. and Ortlepp, J. 1996. Spawning grounds of Chondrostoma soetta Bonaparte, 1840 (Cyprinidae) in southern Switzerland. In: A. Kirchhofer & D. Hefti (eds). Conservation of Endangered Freshwater Fish in Europe. pp: 299–304. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, Switzerland.
|Citation:||Crivelli, A.J. 2006. Chondrostoma soetta. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 08 March 2014.|
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