|Scientific Name:||Chiropotes albinasus|
|Species Authority:||(I. Geoffroy & Deville, 1848)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Taxonomy follows Hershvovitz (1985).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A3cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Veiga, L.M., Pinto, L.P., Ferrari, S.F., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Boubli, J.-P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Endangered as there is reason to believe this species will decline by at least 50% over the coming 30 years (three generations) due mainly to the expanding agricultural frontier in this region, combined with the effects of hunting.
|Range Description:||In the south and west of its range it appears to have an unusual distribution. It is absent from the Jiparaná-Marmoré interfluvium (between the Rios Mamoré, Madeira and Jiparaná and Serra dos Pacaás Novos in the south), and from areas of terra firme forest south of Serra dos Pacaás Novos; as such, it is excluded from almost two-thirds of the state of Rondônia (Ferrari and Lopes 1992; Ferrari et al. 1999). Unexpectedly, it occurs further south in transitional, savanna-like forest (Ferrari et al. 1999), extending south as far as the east bank of the Rio Guaporé in extreme southern Rondônia, on the border with Bolivia (Wallace et al. 1996). Ferrari and colleagues (1999) suggest that ecological factors, rather than physical barriers, limit the distribution of Chiropotes albinasus in this area, possibly linked to competition with the region's other pitheciine species, Pithecia irrorata.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species occurs at low densities and appears to require large areas of continuous forest with high fruit productivity (Pinto and Setz 2005). From studies based on standardized line transects, population densities have been calculated for a number of areas (Table 1).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The preferred habitat is high terra firme forest; however, the species has been observed occasionally in fragmented areas and inundated forests (Ayres 1981; Wallace et al. 1996; Ferrari et al. 2003), and vegetation at the transition between forest and savanna (Ferrari et al. 1999).
This is a specialized seed predator and a highly frugivorous species, with as much as 90% of the diet composed of fruits (Ayres 1981; Pinto in press). In the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (Flona Tapajós), immature seeds were the most important food item (48%), followed by mature fruit pulp (39%) and flowers (5%); matures seeds, immature pulp and invertebrates and other dietary items were eaten in smaller quantities. The most important plant families in the diet were Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Moraceae (Pinto in press.). In Aripuanã, Ayres (1981) observed groups with 19 to 26 individuals. A group studied in Flona Tapajós had 56 members and used an estimated area of 1,000 ha in an 11-month study (Pinto, 2008).
|Major Threat(s):||The Trans-Amazon highway bisects the range of this species from east to west and, perhaps more importantly, the Santarém-Cuiabá highway (BR-163) makes most of the Xingu-Tapajós interfluvium easily accessible from the south. In recent years, this highway has become the main channel of colonization for soybean planters migrating northwards from Mato Grosso, although for the time being, this threat is limited to a relatively small proportion of the species’ range. Soybean farms contribute directly to forest clearing, but also provide the economic and political impetus for the development of new roads and infrastructure projects which accelerate rates of deforestation by other actors (Fearnside 2007). Cattle ranching is also an important threat. The species is hunted for food and occasionally for its tail (for use as dusters).|
This species occurs in the Parque Nacional da Amazônia [Tapajós] (10,000 km²), and Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (Flona Tapajós).
It is listed on CITES Appendix I.
Ayres, J. M. 1981. Observações sobre a ecologia e o comportamento dos cuxiús (Chiropotes albinasus e Chiropotes satanas, Cebidae: Primates). Dissertação de mestrado, Manaus, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA).
Ayres, J. M. and Nessimian, J. L. 1982. Evidence for insectivory in Chiropotes satanas. Primates 23: 458-459.
Branch, L. C. 1983. Seasonal and habitat differences in the abundance of primates in the Amazon (Tapajós) National Park, Brazil. Primates 24: 424-431.
Fearnside, P. 2007. Brazil’s Cuiabá- Santarém (BR-163) Highway: The Environmental Cost of Paving a Soybean Corridor Through the Amazon. Journal of Environmeal Management 39: 601-614.
Ferrari, S., Emidio-Silva, C., Lopes, M. and Bobadilla, U. 1999. Bearded sakis in south-eastern Amazonia—back from the brink? Oryx 33(4).
Ferrari, S. F. 1995. Observations on Chiropotes albinasus from rio dos Marmelos, Amazonas, Brazil. Primates 36(2): 289-293.
Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Coutinho, P. E. G., Messias, M. R., Cruz Neto, E. H., Ramos, E. M. and Ramos, P. C. S. 1999. Zoogeography of Chiropotes albinasus (Platyrrhini, Atelidae) in Southwestern Amazonia. International Journal of Primatology 20: 995-1004.
Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Ravetta, A. L., Freitas, F. C., Souza, B. A. R., Souza, L. L., Costa, C. G. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 2003. Dynamics of primate communities along the Santarém-Cuiabá Highway in south-Central Brazilian Amazonia. In: L. Marsh (ed.), Primates in Fragments: Ecology and Conservation, pp. 123-144. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomy review of the south american bearded saki monkeys genus Chiropotes (Cebidae: Platyrrhini), with the description of a new species. Fieldiana: Zoology 27: 1-46.
Martins, E. S., Ayres, J. M. and do Valle, M. B. R. 1988. On the status of Ateles belzebuth marginatus with notes on the other primates of the Iriri river basin. Primate Conservation 9: 87-91.
Pinto, L. P. 2008. Ecologia alimentar do cuxiú-de-nariz-vermelho Chiropotes albinasus (Primates: pitheciidae) na Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, PA. Tese de doutorado, Universidade Estadual de Campinas.
Pinto, L. P. and Setz, E. Z. F. 2005. Conservação de Chiropotes albinasus. 1° Workshop do Comitê de Primatas Amazônicos Ameaçados, Manaus.
Pinto, L. P. and Setz, E. Z. F. 2005. Ecologia alimentar do cuxiú-de-nariz-branco Chiropotes albinasus (I. Geoffroy e Deville, 1848) em uma área de mata primária. Livro de Resumos, XI Congresso Brasileiro de Primatologia - Porto Alegre, 13 a 18 de fevereiro. Floresta Nacional do Tapajós, PA.
Pinto, L. P. In press. Chiropotes albinasus. In: N. Rowe (ed.), All the World's Primates, Pogonias Press, East Hampton, New York, USA.
Silva Jr., J. S. and Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2002. Revisão sistemática dos cuxiús, gênero Chiropotes Lesson, 1840 (Primates Pithecidae). Livro de Resumos do XO. Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Amazônia - A Última Fronteira: 21. Belém do Pará, Brazil.
Wallace, R. B., Painter, R. L. E., Taber, A. B. and Ayres, J. M. 1996. Notes on a distributional river boundary and southern range extension for two species of Amazonian primates. Neotropical Primates 4: 149-151.
|Citation:||Veiga, L.M., Pinto, L.P., Ferrari, S.F., Rylands, A.B., Mittermeier, R.A. & Boubli, J.-P. 2008. Chiropotes albinasus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 17 April 2014.|
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