|Scientific Name:||Apteryx mantelli Bartlett, 1851|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Apteryx australis, A. mantelli and A. rowi (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously treated as A. australis and A. mantelli (incorporating rowi) following Baker et al. (1995); prior to that all three taxa were lumped as A. australis following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).|
|Identification information:||40 cm. Medium-sized kiwi, flightless, no visible wings. Dark greyish-brown feathers streaked lengthways with reddish-brown. Long ivory bill. Similar spp. Differs from other kiwi taxa in brown rather than grey, rufous or dark brown plumage, stiff rather than soft feather tips, 17 large tarsal scutes (7 or less in other taxa) and long rather than short facial bristles. Voice Shrill, clear ascending then descending whistle (male), lower-pitched, hoarse cry (female). Note duration and inter-note interval increase during a calling bout, and there is evidence that the species may duet (Corfield et al. 2008). Hints Loud calls at night, especially first two hours of darkness.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2bce ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Robertson, H., Weeber, B. & Germano, J.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Martin, R, McClellan, R., Taylor, J., Symes, A., Wheatley, H.|
Mainland populations of this species may be decreasing rapidly, based on annual declines, predation and loss of habitat. However, owing to the stability of island populations, and intensive predator control in select mainland populations, the overall decline is likely to be slower, but still rapid, thus warranting Vulnerable status.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Apteryx mantelli (as defined following the taxonomic change) occurs in isolated and fragmented populations on the North Island and some adjacent islands of New Zealand. Birds are locally common in Northland, and mostly sparsely distributed in the Coromandel Peninsula, Bay of Plenty, Gisborne to the northern Ruahine Range, and from Tongariro to Taranaki. Stable populations are present on Little Barrier/Hauturu-o-Toi (c.1,000 birds), Kawau and Ponui Islands (Heather and Robertson 2015, H. A. Robertson in litt. 2016). Since 1991, the species has been successfully introduced to three pest-free offshore islands (Motukawanui, Motuora, and Motutapu) and translocated to many mainland sites that are either pest-free or where pests are maintained at very low densities. These translocations have established new populations (e.g. Marunui, Mataia, Tawharanui, Maungatautari, Lake Rotokare, Cape Kidnappers, Pukaha Mount Bruce and Rimutaka Range) or have bolstered severely depleted populations (e.g. Whangarei Heads, Mt Egmont National Park, Boundary Stream) (Heather & Robertson 2015, H. Robertson in litt. 2016). The total population was estimated at 26,600 birds in 2015 (H. Robertson in litt. 2016), down from an estimated 35,000 (± c.25%) birds in 1996 (Robertson 2003). Numbers have probably declined by at least 90% since 1900, and are declining at 2.5% per annum in unmanaged mainland populations (Robertson et al. 2011). However, this is thought to be balanced by population increases in areas where predators are absent or managed to low densities (H. Robertson in litt. 2016).|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 2015, the estimated number of individuals in the four main populations was: 8,200 in Northland, 1,000 on Little Barrier, 1,700 on the Coromandel Peninsula, 7,150 in the eastern North Island and 7,500 in the western North Island, giving a total of ca 25,550 birds (H. Robertson in litt. 2016). More than 1,000 individuals of this species are also present on pest-free offshore islands, especially Hauturu-o-Toi/Little Barrier. The total population is therefore estimated to number 26,550 (rounded here to 26,600), which equates to approximately 17,700 mature individuals, placed here in the band 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.|
Trend Justification: Unmanaged mainland populations are declining at 2.5% per annum owing to introduced predators (Robertson et al. 2011). However, this is thought to be balanced by population increases in areas where predators are absent or managed to low densities (H. Robertson in litt. 2016). It is estimated that the population has undergone an overall reduction of 30-49% across three generations (26 years).
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It favours dense, subtropical and temperate forests, but is also found in shrublands, scrub, regenerating forest, exotic pine plantations and pasture (Marchant and Higgins 1990). Diet Invertebrates are the primary food (Heather and Robertson 1997). Breeding Clutch size is one or two (with single clutches more frequent in high-density populations [Ziesemann et al. 2011]) and there are up to three clutches in a year (Colbourne 2002, Ziesemann et al. 2011). The male carries out almost all of the incubation (Colbourne 2002), which is amongst the longest for any bird at between 74 and 84 days (Calder et al. 1978). Laying was recorded in every month between June and November in a high-density population in 2007 (Ziesemann et al. 2011). Chicks hatch fully-feathered, and first leave the nest unaccompanied after about a week. It is long-lived, with generation time taken to be 10-15 years (H. A. Robertson in litt. 1999). More chicks were found to hatch in reused nests than in previously unused burrows (Ziesemann et al. 2011).|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Generation Length (years):||8.8|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
The most significant threat to the survival of the species is predation of adults by dogs and ferrets Mustela furo (Robertson 2010), with predation of young kiwi by Stoat Mustela erminea and cats also affecting populations (McLennan et al. 1996, Basse et al. 1999, Holzapfel et al. 2008, Robertson 2010). Significant spikes of mortality can occur, for example, a single dog killed c.500 birds in six weeks (Taborsky 1988), and over 70 incidents of dogs killing kiwi in Northland occurred between 1990 and 1995 (Pierce and Sporle 1997). The smaller male kiwi may be at greater risk of predation by ferrets, resulting in a skewed sex ratio and reduced effective population size (Robertson 2010). In one population prior to management at least 94% of chicks died before reaching breeding age (McLennan et al. 1996). About half were killed by introduced predators, in particular, stoat Mustela erminea and cats (McLennan et al. 1996). Juvenile kiwi become too large for stoats above about 800g, which takes about four months to achieve (McLennan et al. 2004). The clearance of habitat fragments continues to threaten small populations (Hutching 1995, Miller and Pierce 1995), but the rate of loss of native habitat has declined markedly and this is not currently considered a driver for population reductions (Robertson 2010). New avian diseases and pathogens are a potential threat, particularly with the importation of non-native but closely related ratites to New Zealand (Holzapfel et al. 2008).
Conservation and research actions underway
Monitoring is intensive and nationally coordinated, and uses call-counts, specially-trained dogs searching for banded birds, and radio-tracking (Robertson et al. 2010). Key populations are managed by controlling predators by the use of trapping and poisoned baits (Robertson 1998), with leg-hold predator traps that are raised above the ground to prevent accidental trapping (H. A. Robertson in litt. 1999). Kiwi aversion training for hunters' dogs is being trialed, although there is no evidence that this is a viable long-term solution (Robertson et al. 2010).
A programme of removing and incubating eggs and returning subadults once these are large enough to fend off predators has been developed since 1995 under the name Operation Nest Egg (ONE, or BNZONE as the funding has been provided by the Bank of New Zealand) (Colbourne et al. 2005, Pickard 2009, Robertson et al. 2010). A dedicated rearing facility was constructed at which 942 eggs received from the wild produced 475 young released back into the wild between 1995 and 2008 (Pickard 2009), with survival in captivity greatly improving during this time (Colbourne et al. 2005, Pickard 2009). BNZONE has been demonstrated to be the most effective tool for the species, resulting in a 12.5% annual population increase within managed sites, due to 83% chick survival (Robertson et al. 2010). Due to the cost and need to locate nests this approach is only practical within areas up to 10,000 ha and should be used to turn around declines in the most threatened and restricted populations and subspecies (Colbourne et al. 2005). Many national and overseas captive populations are held (Heather and Robertson 1997). Conservation and research actions proposed
Carry out landscape-scale pest control at sufficient intervals at the sites that are currently unmanaged, specifically for mustelids, rats, cats and dogs (Holzapfel et al. 2008). Intensively manage at least one population of each regional taxon using the BNZONE programme to increase the population size (Holzapfel et al. 2008). Undertake population modelling for all taxa. Investigate landscape-scale remote monitoring techniques for sparse populations (Holzapfel et al. 2008). Promote legislative and policy changes to protect populations and encourage high-quality advocacy at all levels (Robertson 1998, Holzapfel et al. 2008). Educate and inform the public and encourage community involvement in Kiwi conservation (Robertson 1998, Holzapfel et al. 2008).
Baker, A. J.; Daugherty, C. H.; Colbourne, R.; McLennan, J. L. 1995. Flightless Brown Kiwis of New Zealand possess extremely subdivided population structure and cryptic species like small mammals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 92: 8254-8258.
Basse, B., McLennan, J.A. and Wake, G.C. 1999. Analysis of the impact of stoats, Mustela erminea, on the northern brown kiwi, Apteryx mantelli, in New Zealand. Journal of Wildlife Research 26: 227-237.
Calder, W.A., Parr, C.R. and Karl, D.P. 1978. Energy content of eggs of Brown Kiwi Apteryx australis-extreme in avian evolution. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 60(2): 177-179.
Colbourne, R. 2002. Incubation behaviour and egg physiology of kiwi (Apteryx spp.) in natural habitats. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 26(2): 129-138.
Colbourne, R., Bassett, S., Billing, A., McCormack, H., McLennan, J., Nelson, A. and Robertson, H. 2005. The development of Operation Nest Egg as a tool in the conservation management of kiwi. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Corfield, J.; Gillman, L.; Parsons, S. 2008. Vocalizations of the North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). The Auk 125(2): 326-335.
Heather, B. D. and Robertson, H. A. 1997. The field guide to the birds of New Zealand. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Holzapfel, S.; Robertson, H.A.; McLennan, J.A.; Sporle, W.; Hackwell, K.; Impey, M. 2008 . Kiwi (Apteryx spp.) recovery plan: 2008–2018. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Hutching, G. 1995. Kiwi recovery? Attempting to save a national icon. Forest and Bird 278: 22-28.
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 7 December 2017).
Marchant, S.; Higgins, P. J. 1990. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds, 1: ratites to ducks. Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
McLennan, J.A., Dew, L., Miles, J., Gillingham, N. and Waiwai, R. 2004. Size matters: predation risk and juvenile growth in North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). New Zealand Journal of Ecology 28(2): 241-250.
McLennan, J. A.; Potter, M. A.; Robertson, H. A.; Wake, G. C.; Colbourne, R.; Dew, L.; Joyce, L.; McCann, A. J.; Miles, J.; Miller, P. J.; Reid, J. 1996. Role of predation in the decline of kiwi, Apteryx spp., in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 20: 27-35.
Miller, P. J.; Pierce, R. J. 1995. Distribution and decline of the North Island Brown Kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) in Northland. Notornis 42: 203-211.
Pickard, J. G. 2009. The National Kiwi Trust - Kiwi encounter. International Zoo News 56(7): 388-400.
Pierce, R.J. and Sporle, W. 1997. Causes of kiwi mortality in Northland. Conservation Advisory Notes 169. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Robertson, H. A. 1998. Kiwi recovery plan 1996--2006. Department of Conservation, Wellington.
Robertson, H. A. 2013. North Island brown kiwi. In Miskelly, C.M. (ed.) New Zealand Birds Online. Available at: www.nzbirdsonline.org.nz.
Robertson, H.A., Colbourne, R.A., Graham, P.J., Miller, P.J. and Pierce, R.J. 2010. Experimental management of Brown Kiwi Apteryx mantelli in central Northland, New Zealand. Bird Conservation International.
Taborsky, M. 1988. Kiwis and dog predation: observations in Waitangi State Forest. Notornis 35: 197-202.
Tennyson, A. J. D., Palma, R. L.; Robertson, H. A.; Worthy, T. H.; Gill, B. J. 2003. A new species of kiwi (Aves, Apterygiformes) from Okarito, New Zealand. Records of the Auckland Museum 40: 55-64.
Ziesemann, B.; Brunton. D. H.; Castro, I. C. 2011. Nesting success and breeding ecology in a high-density population of Brown Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli). Emu 111(2): 148-154.
|Citation:||BirdLife International. 2017. Apteryx mantelli. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T45353580A119177586.Downloaded on 21 March 2018.|
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