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Crax fasciolata 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Aves Galliformes Cracidae

Scientific Name: Crax fasciolata Spix, 1825
Common Name(s):
English Bare-faced Curassow
Taxonomic Source(s): del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Taxonomic Notes: Crax fasciolata and C. pinima (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. fasciolata following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
Identification information: c. 75 cm. Males are large, black curassows with bare skin surrounding the eye; slick, curled crest and bright yellow skin at the base of the bill. Females have similar curled feathers as a crest, but have buff underparts, white banded upperparts and white tips to the tail feathers. Similar species. C. pinima was previously included with C. fasciolata; the former is smaller, females have much reduced barring above and are almost white below, not buff.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A4c ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-10-01
Assessor(s): BirdLife International
Reviewer(s): Butchart, S. & Symes, A.
Contributor(s): del Castillo, H.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Fisher, S., Harding, M., Martin, R, Taylor, J. & Symes, A.
Justification:
Based on a model of deforestation in the Amazon basin, and the species’s vulnerability to hunting, it is suspected that its population is declining rapidly over three generations, and it has therefore been classified as Vulnerable.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Crax fasciolata occurs in eastern Bolivia (C. f. grayi), with the nominate C. f. fasciolata from central and south-west Brazil, Paraguay and north Argentina. Although the nominate race survives in Brazil from Minas Gerais, Goiás and Mato Grosso do Sul north to Pará and Mato Grosso, and can be locally common (as in the northern Pantanal and Serra dos Carajás), it is extinct, or nearly so, in Sao Paulo and Paraná (del Hoyo 1994, F. Olmos in litt. 2003). It is considered rare and threatened in Argentina. In Paraguay, the species was thought to have been extirpated, or close to disappearing, from much of its range, although in 1999 the species was still relatively numerous in northern Concepción Department (Clay 2001), it is still recorded an annual basis in gallery forests in Concepción and Ñeembucú Departments, and a nest was discovered in 2011 in the Chaco-Pantanal area (H. del Castillo in litt. 2014). In Bolivia the species is widely distributed throughout the llanos de moxos (savannas), with many areas holding protected populations (B. Hennessey in litt. 2003).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Argentina; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Paraguay
Additional data:
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO):NoEstimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:4720000
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):UnknownExtreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO):No
Continuing decline in number of locations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations:No
Upper elevation limit (metres):900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend Justification:  A model of forest loss in the Amazon basin since 2002 (Soares-Filho et al. 2006), combined with the species’s approximate range and data on its ecology and life history (following the methods of Bird et al. 2011), suggests that the species will lose 24-36% of suitable habitat in the Amazonian portion of its range (as defined by the model, and which accounts for c.50% of the total area of suitable habitat for this species) over 35 years (estimate of three generations). The pessimistic scenario for forest loss suggests that the species will lose at least 17.8% of its global extent of suitable habitat over this period. By also factoring in additional declines owing to the species’s susceptibility to fragmentation, edge-effects and hunting, a suspected rate of population decline in Amazonia is calculated to be 27.8% over 35 years. Given habitat loss elsewhere in the range a decline of 30-49% is suspected.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:UnknownContinuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations:NoPopulation severely fragmented:No
Continuing decline in subpopulations:Unknown
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations:NoAll individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits humid, semi-deciduous and gallery forests, and is often recorded in woodland edges (del Hoyo 1994). Primarily frugivorous but also noted feeding on seeds, flowers and invertebrates (del Hoyo & Motis 2004). Breeding evidence noted in the southern hemisphere summer in Paraguay and Argentina; nest is a platform located in a tree (del Hoyo & Motis 2004).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Unknown
Generation Length (years):11.5
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although the species occupies a relatively large range, it has disappeared from parts of its former range as a result of habitat destruction and hunting (del Hoyo 1994). Hunting pressure is an issue in Goiás, Tocantins and southern Pará, but the nominate form is not considered to be particularly threatened in Brazil (F. Olmos in litt. 2003). The species remains relatively numerous in northern Concepción Department (Paraguay), however, human presence in this area has increased considerably over and hunting pressure may now be high (Clay 2001). The species is listed as being of "High conservation priority" in the IUCN Cracid Action Plan, and more information on population size, trends and habitat loss are needed, especially for the core range in Brazil.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

Conservation  and research actions underway
No targeted actions are known, but the species presumably occurs in a number of protected areas.

Conservation and research actions proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Marginal season:resident 
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
5. Law & policy -> 5.2. Policies and regulations

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

Bibliography [top]

Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

Clay, R. P. 2001. The status and conservation of the cracids of Paraguay. In: Brooks, D.M.; Gonzalez-F, F. (ed.), Biology and conservation of cracids in the new millenium, pp. 124-138. Misc. Publ. Houston Mus. Nat. Sci. No. 2.

del Hoyo, J. 1994. Cracidae (Chachalacas, Guans and Curassows). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 310-363. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

del Hoyo, J. & Motis, A. 2004. Update Chapter. In: Delacour, J. & Amadon, D. (ed.), Curassows and Related Birds. Second edition, pp. 322-476. Lynx Edicions and the National Museum of Natural History, Barcelona and New York.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Novaes, F.C. and Lima, M.F.C. 1998. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Brazil.

Soares-Filho, B.S., Nepstad, D.C., Curran, L.M., Cerqueira, G.C., Garcia, R.A., Ramos, C.A., Voll, E., McDonald, A., Lefebvre, P. and Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D.F., Fitzpatrick, J.W., Parker, T.A. and Moskovits, D.K. 1996. Neotropical Birds: Ecology and Conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.


Citation: BirdLife International. 2016. Crax fasciolata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T45092100A95141387. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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