|Scientific Name:||Trachypithecus johnii|
|Species Authority:||(J. Fischer, 1829)|
Semnopithecus johnii (J. Fischer, 1829)
Trachypithecus cucullatus (Fischer, 1829)
Trachypithecus jubatus (Wagner, 1839)
Trachypithecus leonina (Shaw, 1800)
|Taxonomic Notes:||This taxon is sometimes considered to be in the genus Semnopithecus.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C2a(i) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Singh, M., Kumar, A. & Molur, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Vulnerable as the number of mature individuals is less than 10,000 (Molur et al. 2003) across many, severely fragmented locations, with continuing decline in habitat quality, area and with no subpopulation containing more than 1,000 mature individuals.
|Range Description:||This species occurs only in the Western Ghats in southwestern India (Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu). It is found, rather unevenly, in the hill country of the Western Ghats from the Aramboli Pass (at 8°16’N near the southern tip of India) north to Srimangala (12°01’N, 75°58’E) (Groves 2001).|
Native:India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Molur et al. (2003) estimate a total population of less than 20,000 (<10,000 mature) individuals, based on studies in a few areas (Karnataka, M. Singh pers. comm.; Kerala, S. Ram ongoing study; Tamil Nadu, M. Singh and A. Kumar pers. comm.) and extrapolated to the rest of its distribution. After the introduction of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act in 1972, the population has increased (Kurup 1979), and this trend was seen until the early 1990s. The population since then has been relatively stable (A. Kumar and M. Singh pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This species is found in evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist deciduous forests, montane evergreen forests and in riparian forests in lower altitudes in some places (e.g. Megamalai and Anamalai) (Kurup 1979; Singh et al. 1997). It ranges from 300 to 2,000 m in elevation (Molur et al. 2003).
It is folivorous, but will also eat flowers, buds, seeds, bark, stems, insects, and earth (Roonwal and Mohnot 1977; Poirier 1969; Oates et al. 1979); it has been reported to be a facultative frugivore (Sushma and Singh 2006). It has also been reported to forage for cultivated cabbage, potatoes, and cauliflower and ornamental garden poppies (Poirier 1969). It is arboreal, diurnal, and typically occurs in uni-male groups (Molur et al. 2003), usually with nine or ten animals in a group.
This species is hunted for its skin, which is used for making drums, as well as for other parts of the body, which are used for meat as well as in traditional “medicine” (Roonwal and Mohnot 1977). Hunting has decreased in recent years due to better protection and NGO activities through community participation (A. Kumar and M. Singh pers. comm.).
According to Molur et al. (2003), past and present threats include habitat loss due to crop plantations, mining, dams, fragmentation, human settlement, hunting, road kills, deliberate fires, storms/flooding, landslides, and local trade for pets. Although fragmentation and habitat loss are threats, this species is not affected as much as lion-tailed macaques (M. Singh pers. comm.). They are better dispersers and have better colonization ability (A. Kumar pers. comm.).
The species is listed on CITES Appendix II, and Schedule I, Part I of the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 amended up to 2002 (Molur et al. 2003).
This species is known to occur in numerous protected areas, including: Aaralam Sanctuary, Brahmagiri Sanctuary, Chimmony Sanctuary, Chinnar Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, Grizzled Giant Squirrel Sanctuary, Idukki Sanctuary, Indira Gandhi Sanctuary, Kalakkad Sanctuary, Mudumalai Sanctuary, Mukurthi National Park, Mundanthurai Sanctuary, Neyyar Sanctuary, Parambikulam Sanctuary, Peechi Sanctuary, Peppara Sanctuary, Periyar National Park, Periyar Sanctuary, Shendurney Sanctuary, Silent Valley National Park, Thattekadu Sanctuary, Wayanad Sanctuary (Molur et al. 2003).
The following are recommended areas of research: taxonomy, life history, survey studies, and ecology. The following are recommended management actions: habitat management, monitoring, public education, poaching control measures, Population and Habitat Viability Assessment, and prevention of conversion of forest areas to private lands, prevention of conversion of natural private forests, coffee and cardamom plantations into tea plantations (Molur et al. 2003; M. Singh pers. comm.)
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Hohmann, G. 1989. Group fission in Nilgiri langurs (Presbytis johnii). International journal of primatology 10(5): 441–454.
Horwich, R. 1972. Home range and food habits of the Nilgiri langur, Presbytis johnii. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 69: 255-267.
Joseph, G. and Ramachandran, K. 2003. Distribution and demography of the Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii) in Silent Valley National Park and adjacent areas, Kerala, India. Primate Conservation 19: 78-82.
Kurup, G. 1979. Conservation of lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) and Nilgiri langur (Presbytis johnii). Tiger Paper 6(4): 17–19.
Molur, S., Brandon-Jones, D., Dittus, W., Eudey, A., Kumar, A., Singh, M., Feeroz, M. M., Chalise, M., Priya, P. and Walker, S. 2003. Status of South Asian Primates: Conservation Assessment and Managment Plan Report. Workshop Report, 2003. Zoo Outreach Organization/CBSG-South Asia, Coimbatore, India.
Oates, J. 1979. Comments on the geographical distribution and status of the south Indian black leaf-monkey (Presbytis johnii). Mammalia 43: 485 – 493.
Poirier, F. 1969. The Nilgiri langur (Presbytis johnii) troop: its composition, structure, function and change. Folia Primatologica 10(1): 20 – 47.
Ram, S. and Srinivas, V. 2001. Comments on the current geographical distribution of the Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii, Fisher) in Kerala, India. Asian Primates 7(3-4): 17-18.
Roonwal, M. and Mohnot, S. 1977. Primates of South Asia: Ecology, Sociobiology and Behavior. Cambridge.
Singh, M., Singh, M., Kumara, H. N., Kumar, M. A. and D'Souza, L. 1997. Inter- and intra-specific associations of non-human primates in Anailmalai Hills, south India. Mammalia 61(1): 17 - 28.
Sushma, H. and Singh, M. 2006. Resource partitioning and interspecific interactions among sympatric rain forest arboreal mammals of the Western Ghats, India. Behavioral Ecology 17(3): 479-490.
|Citation:||Singh, M., Kumar, A. & Molur, S. 2008. Trachypithecus johnii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 October 2014.|
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