|Scientific Name:||Bulbostylis pseudoperennis|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Bulbostylis pseudoperennis was only described in 1985 and before was overlooked and confused with B. mucronata C.B.Clarke.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1|
Bulbostylis pseudoperennis is assessed as Vulnerable. Bulbostylis pseudoperennis is widespread on copper-cobalt outcrops but has a limited distribution range, as it occurs only in the Katangan Copper Bow (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and the Zambian Copperbelt (Zambia). The extent of occurrence (EOO) is less than 20,000 km2, the species is known to occur in less than 10 locations, and there is a continuing decline in the quality of the habitat. The Katangan Copper Bow (DRC) and the Zambian Copperbelt (Zambia) are both important areas for the production of copper and cobalt, a major trade product for these countries. These resources have always been used (since the pre-colonial period), and their exploitation has increased in both countries since then; in Zambia mainly after the privatization of ZCCM (Zambian Consolidated Copper Mines) and the full transition of one of the world's largest copper industries from state-owned to privately owned. Copper and cobalt prices have increased globally so there is likely to be an expansion of mining activities. Due to the restricted distribution and to the high pressure on the habitat for the utilization and expansion of the mine site, the species is assessed as Vulnerable. The species needs to be monitored over a longer period of time to make sure that it doesn't fall into a higher threatened category.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia.|
Native:Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Zambia
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||1000|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||1300|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is frequent in the Katanga Province, especially on Katangan mine areas (mine de l'Etoile, Lubumbashi District) and in the Zambian Copperbelt.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is an annual herb. It is a species restricted to copper-cobalt outcrops and to mine-polluted areas, both operational and derelict. The species occurs on dry sandy soil or in damp places. It grows in steppish savanna, rocky hills, in bare areas, slightly depressed with sand accumulation and water stagnation after heavy rainfall, or along the verges of roads. It is a copper and cobalt hyperaccumulator.|
|Use and Trade:||There are no known uses for this species.|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threats to this species are the disturbance and destruction of habitat due to mine expansion. It has a limited distribution range, as it grows mainly on copper and cobalt outcrops, and those areas are the ones that are extensively exploited for these metals' extraction. The production of copper and cobalt has fluctuated over time, but it is still an important resource for the two countries; in the last years (mainly after privatization of the mine industries from state-owned to privately owned) the production of these metals has increased, meaning that the habitat is subject to higher disturbance and destruction (i.e., expansion of mine, opening of new mines in outcrops not previously mined, old mines that have closed could become viable again).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures specifically for this species. Possibly a population occurs in a protected area (South Luangwa National Park, Zambia) but identification is uncertain.|
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Leteinturier, L., Baker, A.J.M. and Malaisse, F. 1999. Early stages of natural revegetation of metalliferous mine workings in South Central Africa: a preliminary survey. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment 3(1): 28-41.
Malaisse, F., Baker, A.J.M. and Ruelle, S. 1999. Diversity of plant communities and leaf heavy metal content at Luiswishi copper/cobalt mineralization, Upper Katanga, Dem. Rep. Congo. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment 3(2): 104-114.
USGS. 1994-2006. Minerals yearbooks: Africa and the Middle East. Available at: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/africa.html#za. (Accessed: 23 May 2008).
|Citation:||Contu, S. 2013. Bulbostylis pseudoperennis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T44393507A44466512. . Downloaded on 10 February 2016.|
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