|Scientific Name:||Squalus acanthias (Northwest Atlantic subpopulation)|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bd+4bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Fordham, S., Fowler, S.L., Coelho, R., Goldman, K.J. & Francis, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D. & participants of the Shark Specialist Group Mediterranean & North-Central America workshop (Shark Red List Authority)|
The spiny dogfish or spurdog Squalus acanthias is a small demersal shark of temperate continental shelf seas worldwide. Most stocks are highly migratory, but there is no regional fisheries management for the species. Management is in place in only a few range states and in only a limited part of the range of highly migratory stocks. Although naturally abundant, this is one of the more vulnerable species of shark to over-exploitation by fisheries because of its late maturity, low reproductive capacity, longevity, long generation time (25–40 years) and hence a very low intrinsic rate of population increase (2–7% per annum). Population segregation and an aggregating habit make mature (usually pregnant) females highly vulnerable to fisheries even when stocks are seriously depleted. This aggregating habit also means that catch per unit effort (CPUE) is not an adequate indicator of stock status; high CPUE can be maintained even when populations are severely depleted. Some targeted Squalus acanthias fisheries have been documented for over 100 years. Fisheries stock assessments report a decline in total biomass of >95% from baseline in the Northeast Atlantic, where catch effort is effectively unlimited. Mediterranean and Black Sea stocks are also unmanaged, with a >60% decline reported in a Black Sea stock assessment for 1981–1992. There has been a decline in biomass of mature females of 75% in just 10 years in the Northwest Atlantic, where US federal efforts to manage the stock are hampered by high bycatch, continued exploitation in Canadian Atlantic waters, and regular defiance of scientific advice by US Atlantic states. European demand continues to fuel markets around the world. Fisheries and population trend data indicate that the southern part of the Northeast Pacific stock has also declined through overfishing, but stocks appear stable off Alaska. The only data identified from the Northwest Pacific are from Japan, where landings of spurdog declined ~80% in 1952–1965, and inshore spurdog CPUE declined 80–90% from the mid 1970s to late 1990s. Unregulated and expanding target and bycatch fisheries take spiny dogfish in South America (Europe reports imports from this region), where population declines are reported. New Zealand manages the species, which is taken in target and bycatch fisheries, through its Quota Management System. There is only limited fishing pressure in Australia and South Africa, with most catches discarded.
Native:Bahamas; Canada (British Columbia); Cuba; Greenland; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – northwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Anderson, E.D. 1990. Fishery models as applied to elasmobranch fisheries. In: H.L. Pratt Jr., S.H. Gruber and T. Taniuchi (eds). Elasmobranchs as living resources: advances in the biology, ecology, systematics, and the status of fisheries. pp: 473–484. NOAA Technical Report NMFS. U.S. Department of Commerce,
Anonymous. 2002. Fisheries and Oceans Canada. News Release NR-MAR-02-07E. Thibault announces 2002 Dogfish Management Plan for Maritimes Region
Anonymous. 2003. 2002/03 Sustainability Review. Ministry of Fisheries, New Zealand
Anonymous. 2004. Draft Proposal to include Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in Appendix II of CITES. Submitted to the European Commission by the Federal Republic of Germany
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council. 2005. Report from the Joint Spiny Dogfish Technical Committee and Monitoring Committee Meeting. Providence, Rhode Island.
Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC). 2002. Fishery Management Plan for Spiny Dogfish. Draft for Public Comment
Beamish, R.J. and McFarlane, G.A. 1985. Annulus development on the second dorsal spine of the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) and its validity for age determination. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 42(11): 1799–1805.
Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.C. 1953. Fishes of the Gulf of Maine. Fisheries Bulletin 54: 1-577.
Bonfil, R. 1994. Overview of world elasmobranch fisheries. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 341. FAO, Rome.
Bundy, A. 2003. Proceedings of the Canada/U.S. Information Session on Spiny Dogfish. Bedford Institute of Oceanography, April 4, 2003. Dartmouth, Nova Scotia
Camhi, M. 1999. Sharks on the Line II: An analysis of Pacific State Shark Fisheries. National Audubon Society, Islip, NY.
Castro, J.I. 1983. The sharks of North American waters. Texas A & M University Press, College Station.
Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 4, Part 1.
Cortés, E. 1994. Demographic analysis of the Atlantic sharpnose shark, Rhizoprionodon terraenovae, in the Gulf of Mexico. Fishery Bulletin 93: 57–66
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2000. Squalus acanthias. Rome, Italy Available at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/species/2834/en.
Fordham, S. 2005. Spiny dogfish. In: S.L. Fowler, M. Camhi, G.H. Burgess, G.M. Cailliet, S.V. Fordham, R.D. Cavanagh, C.A. Simpfendorfer, and J.A. Musick (eds) Sharks, rays and chimaeras: the status of the chondrichthyan fishes. IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Gauld, J.A. 1982. The dogfish - an ocean rover Scottish Fisheries Buletinl 47: 13–16.
Government of Japan Fisheries Agency. 2003. Report on the Assessment of Implementation of Japan’s National Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks of FAO (Preliminary version). Presented at the 19th meeting of the Animals Committee of CITES. Document for submission to the 25th FAO Committee on Fisheries. Annex 1 of AC19 Doc. 18.3
Hammond, T.R. and Ellis, J.R. 2004. Bayesian assessment of Northeast Atlantic spurdog using a stock production model, with prior for intrinsic population growth rate set by demographic methods. e-Journal of Northwest Atlantic Fishery Science 35: 8
Hjertenes, P.O. 1980. The spurdogs in the North Sea area: the Norwegian fishery and observations on the changes in the migration patterns. ICES CM H:60.
Holden, M.J. 1968. The rational exploitation of the Scottish-Norwegian stocks of spurdogs (Squalus acanthias L.). Fisheries Investigations Series II. Vol. XXV, Number 8. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London.
Holden, M.J. 1977. Elasmobranchs. In: J.A. Gulland Fish population dynamics. pp: 187-214. J. Wiley and Sons.
IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.
IUCN. 2006. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 04 May 2006.
IUCN SSC Shark Specialist Group. Specialist Group website. Available at: http://www.iucnssg.org/.
Jensen, A.C. 1965. Life history of the spiny dogfish. Fisheries Bulletin 65: 527–554.
Ketchen, K.S. 1975. Age and growth of dogfish Squalus acanthias in British Columbia waters. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board Canada 32: 43–59.
King, J.R. and McFarlane, G.A. 2005. Presentation of Trends in Abundance of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the Strait of Georgia. First International Symposium on the Management and Biology of Dogfish Sharks, June 13–15, 2005. Seattle, Washington.
Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 2009. Sharks and Rays of Australia. Second Edition. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.
Link, J.S., Garrison, L.P. and Almeida, F.P. 2002. Ecological Interactions between Elasmobranchs and Groundfish Species on the Northeastern U.S. Continental Shelf. I. Evaluating Predation. North American Journal of Fisheries Management, American Fisheries Society 22: 550–562.
Manning, M.J., Hanchet, S.M. and Stevenson, M.L. 2004. A description and analysis of New Zealand's spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) fisheries and recommendations on appropriate methods to monitor the status of the stocks. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 61.
Massa, A.M., Hozbor, N.M., Lasta, C.A. and Carroza, C.R. 2002. Impacto de la presión sobre los condrictios de la región costera bonaerense (Argentina) y Uruguaya periodo 1994–1999. Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarollo Pesquero.
McFarlane, G.A. and Beamish, R.J. 1987. Validation of the dorsal spine method of age determination for spiny dogfish. In: R.C. Summerfelt & G.E. Hill (eds). Age and Growth of Fish. pp: 287–300. Iowa State University Press.
McFarlane, G.A., Wallace, S.S., Campana, S. and King, J. 2005. Status of Spiny Dogfish in Atlantic and Pacific Canada. Presentation at the First International Symposium on the Management & Biology of Dogfish Sharks, June 13–15, 2005. Seattle, Washington
McMillan, D.G. and Morse, W.W. 1999. Essential Fish Habitat Source. In: Spiny Dogfish, Squalus acanthias, Life History and Habitat Characteristics. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS.
Mid-Atlantic Fishery Management Council. 2001. Summary Minutes of the Dogfish Monitoring Committee Meeting, September 11, 2001. Marriott Hotel, Baltimore, MD.
Nammack, M.F., Musick, J.A. and Colvocoresses, J.A. 1985. Life history of spiny dogfish off the Northeastern United States. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 114: 367–376.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1994. Report of the 18th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Workshop (18th SAW): Spiny dogfish. NEFSC Ref. Doc. 94-22. pp: 89–134. NMFS, NOAA, Dept. of Commerce.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1995. Status of the fishery resources off the Northeastern United States for 1994. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS, NE-108. pp: 106–107. NMFS/NEFSC, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1998. Advisory Report on Stock Status (SAW-26 Corrigendum - spiny dogfish). NMFS, NEFSC, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.
NEFSC. 2003. Advisory report on Stock Status, The 37th Northeast Regional Stock Assessment Review Committee (SARC). September 2003. National Marine Fisheries Service/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Woods Hole, MA, USA.
Ocean Wildlife Campaign. 1996. Proposal in support of listing the spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) of the Northwest Atlantic on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) at the Tenth Conference of the Parties.
Palsson, W.A. 2005. Presentation of the Status of Spiny Dogfish in Puget Sound, Washington. First International Symposium on the Management & Biology of Dogfish Sharks. Seattle, Washington
Palsson, W.A., Hoeman, J.C., Bargmann, G.G. and Day, D.E. 1996. 1995 Status of Puget Sound Bottomfish Stocks. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA.
Palsson, W.A., Hoeman, J.C., Bargmann, G.G. and Day, D.E. 1997. 1995 Status of Puget Sound bottomfish stocks (revised). Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Olympia, WA
Pawson, M. and Vince, M. 1998. Fishery management case studies: management of shark fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic (FAO Area 27). Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, England
Pierce, D. 2006. Spiny Dogfish Compliance Report (covering the "fishing year" May 1, 2004 through April 2005) for the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission. February 16, 2006. Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission
Prodanov, K., Mikhailov, K., Daskalov, G., Maxim, C., Chashchin, A., Arkhipov, A., Shlyakhov, V., Ozdamar, E. 1997. Environmental Management of Fish Resources in the Black Sea and their Rational Exploitation. Studies and Reviews of the General Fisheries Council for the Mediterranean. FAO, Rome.
Rago, P.J. and Sosebee, K. 2002. Presentation of the Status Review of Spiny Dogfish and Risk Analysis of Alternative Management Scenarios. ASMFC Spiny Dogfish Technical Committee, May 7, 2002. Baltimore, Maryland
Rago, P.J., Sosebee, K., Brodziak, J. and Anderson, E. 1996. Distribution and dynamics of Northwest Atlantic spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias. Proceedings of AFS 25th Annual Meeting, August 27–31, 1996. Tampa, FL.
Rago, P., Sosebee, K., Brodziak, J., Murawski, S.A. and Anderson, E.D. 1994. Distribution and Dynamics of Northwest Atlantic Spiny Dogfish Squalus acanthias Marine Fisheries Service, Woods Hole, MA, USA
Rey, L.Z. 1928. Fauna Ibérica: Peces. Tomo primero. Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid.
Rose, D.A. 1996. An overview of world trade in sharks and other cartilaginous fishes. TRAFFIC International, Cambridge
Saunders, M.W. 1988. Dogfish. In: J. Fargo, M.W. Saunders & A.V. Tyler (eds). Groundfish stock assessment for the West Coast of Canada in 1987 and recommended yield options for 1988. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci 1617: 151–158.
Saunders, M.W. and McFarlane, G.A. 1993. Age and length at maturity of the female spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada. Environ. Biol. Fishes 38: 49–57.
Smith, S.E., Au, D.W. and Show, C. 1998. Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharks. Marine and Freshwater Research 49(7): 663–678.
Stevens, J. 1993. The status of chondrichthyan resources in the South West Pacific. CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Marine Laboratories, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.
Sullivan, K.J., Mace, P.M., Smith, N.W.M., Griffiths, M.H., Todd, P.R., Livingston, M.E., Harley, S., Key, J.M. and Connell, A.M. (eds). 2005. Report from the Fishery Assessment Plenary, May 2005: stock assessments and yield estimates. Ministry of Fisheries, Wellington.
Templeman, W. 1944. The life-history of the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias, and the vitamin A values of dogfish liver oil. Newfoundland Department of Natural Resources, Research Bulletin (Fisheries) 15: 1–102.
Templeman, W. 1976. Transatlantic migrations of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33: 2605–2609
Van der Molen, S., Caille, G. and Gonzalez, R. 1998. By-catch of sharks in Patagonian coastal trawl fisheries. Marine and Freshwater Research 49: 641–644.
Vince, M.R. 1991. Stock Identity in spurdog (Squalus acanthias L.) around the British Isles. Fish. Research 12: 341–354.
Weber M.L. and Fordham, S.V. 1997. Managing shark fisheries: opportunities for international conservation. TRAFFIC International and the Center for Marine Conservation
|Citation:||Fordham, S., Fowler, S.L., Coelho, R., Goldman, K.J. & Francis, M. 2006. Squalus acanthias (Northwest Atlantic subpopulation). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 July 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|