|Scientific Name:||Capparis sandwichiana|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable C1 ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Maunder, M. (Plant Conservation Committee) & Dickinson, T. (Red List Programme Office)|
Capparis sandwichiana is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. There are many occurrences still surviving on the islands of Kauai, Kaho`olawe, O`ahu, Ni`ihau, Moloka`i, Maui, Lana`i, and Hawai`i. This species is also found on the Northwestern Hawaiian islands of Midway Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Laysan. The total population number is still in the thousands, however, a decline of at least 10% over the last ten years has been estimated. C. sandwichiana has been adversely affected by the many factors threatening most of the Hawaiian coastal and lowland plant taxa.
|Range Description:||Capparis sandwichiana is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. There are many occurrences still surviving on the islands of Kaua`i, Kaho`olawe, O`ahu, Ni`ihau, Moloka`i, Maui, Lana`i, and Hawai`i. Also found on the Northwestern Hawaiian islands of Midway Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Laysan. The total number of plants remaining is still in the thousands, however, a decline in the total population of at least 10% has been estimated over the last ten years.|
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A shrub of dry regions, most often in coastal areas, less frequently inland. Growing on cliffs, lava flows, emerged coral reefs and in rocky gulches.|
|Major Threat(s):||Threats to C. sandwichiana include poor regeneration, grazing by goats, invasive alien plants, fire, urban sprawl and coastal development.|
|Conservation Actions:||Listed as a Candidate species with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.|
IUCN. 2003. 2003 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded on 18 November 2003.
NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: October 20, 2003).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.
|Citation:||Bruegmann, M.M. & Caraway, V. 2003. Capparis sandwichiana. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 18 May 2013.|
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