B1ab(iii,v)+2ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D
Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M.
Justification: Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Hawaiʻi and has an extent of occurrence of 4 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its area of occupancy is 4 km². Its distribution is severely limited, with just five mature plants occurring in a single subpopulation. This qualifies the taxon for a ranking of Critically Endangered under criteria B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii), C2a(i,ii) and D.
Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 530 and 1,150 m elevation on the islands of Maui and Hawaiʻi. Clermontia peleana subsp. peleana is now only know from a single subpopulation with five mature plants on the island of Hawaiʻi.
The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, and predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly feral pigs, which degrade the habitat and harm the plants through predation, trampling, and rooting for food. Alien plants also threaten the species by altering its habitat and competing with it for moisture, nutrients, light, and space. Rats pose a threat to the species through predation of its plant parts and fruits; and introduced slugs and snails threaten the species by feeding on its leaves, stems, and seedlings. Since the species is epiphytic, it is threatened by wind and falling tree branches.
The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The single subpopulation does not occur in any protected area, and it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, but it is not known whether they have not yet produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.