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Astelia waialealae 

Scope: Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_onStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Liliales Asteliaceae

Scientific Name: Astelia waialealae
Species Authority: Wawra
Taxonomic Source(s): Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.
Identification information: Monocot.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(i); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2014-06-11
Assessor(s): Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Clark, M.
Reviewer(s): Walsh, S.
Contributor(s): Nyberg, B. & Wood, K.
Justification:
Astelia waialealae is assessed as Critically Endangered. Three subpopulations remain, with 10 mature individuals in total among them. In recent years, most of the bogs have been heavily damaged by feral pigs. Alien invasive plants also pose a threat, and pollination may not be sufficient to produce viable seeds to allow the species to regenerate on its own.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, between 1,250 and 1,500 m elevation on the island of Kauaʻi. Found only within the Alakaʻi Swamp area.

Countries occurrence:
Native:
United States (Hawaiian Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:4Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:13
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):1250
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In 1997, Astelia waialealae was known from three separate locations within the Alakaʻi Swamp, comprising 16 individuals: a) Sincock Bog with five individuals in two separate clumps; b) Waikoali Circle Bog with eight individuals in three separate clumps; c) Waialealae region with three individuals in one clump. In 2016, ten individuals are known from among five subpopulations.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
No. of subpopulations:3
All individuals in one subpopulation:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The taxon is a rhizomatous perennial herb found in open Hawaiian montane bogs dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha and Oreobolus furcatus. Other associated native plant species include Rhyncospora spicaeformis ssp. chinensis, Dubautia paleata, Cheirodendron trigynum, Carex montis-eeka, Drosera anglica, Vaccinium calycinum, Cibotium sp., Viola kauaiensis var. kauaiensis, Coprosma elliptica,  Dicranopteris linearis, Dichanthelium isachnoides, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, and Lysimachia daphnoides.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In recent years, most of the bogs have been heavily damaged by feral pigs. Circle Bog is fenced, but fence damage sometimes allows pigs to gain access in. Human disturbance in the form of fire has damaged one bog within the last three years. Invasive introduced plants including Juncus planifolius, Xyris camplanata, Schizachyrium condensatum, also pose a threat. The species is dioecious, and lack of pollination is thought to result in poor seed set. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as extremely vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index 0.896).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Astelia waialealae is listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Act. It is also listed by the State of Hawaiʻi. It is monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. All remaining individuals are within small fenced, weeded, and monitored areas.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Yes
  Systematic monitoring scheme:Yes
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Percentage of population protected by PAs (0-100):91-100
  Area based regional management plan:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Yes
In-Place Education
11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

12. Other options -> 12.1. Other threat
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:High Impact: 8 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Schizachyrium condensatum ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Juncus planifolius ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Xyris complanata ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Sus domesticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

Bibliography [top]

Fortini, L., Price, J., Jacobi, J., Vorsino, A., Burgett, J., Brinck, K., Amidon, F., Miller, S., Gon II, S., Koob, G. and Paxton, E. 2013. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical report HCSU-044. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).

NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: October 17, 2003).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.

Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.


Citation: Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Clark, M. 2016. Astelia waialealae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T44079A83794760. . Downloaded on 28 September 2016.
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