|Scientific Name:||Astelia waialealae Wawra|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered C2a(i); D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Clark, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Nyberg, B. & Wood, K.|
Astelia waialealae is assessed as Critically Endangered. Three subpopulations remain, with 10 mature individuals in total among them. In recent years, most of the bogs have been heavily damaged by feral pigs. Alien invasive plants also pose a threat, and pollination may not be sufficient to produce viable seeds to allow the species to regenerate on its own.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, between 1,250 and 1,500 m elevation on the island of Kauaʻi. Found only within the Alakaʻi Swamp area.
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In 1997, Astelia waialealae was known from three separate locations within the Alakaʻi Swamp, comprising 16 individuals: a) Sincock Bog with five individuals in two separate clumps; b) Waikoali Circle Bog with eight individuals in three separate clumps; c) Waialealae region with three individuals in one clump. In 2016, ten individuals are known from among five subpopulations.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The taxon is a rhizomatous perennial herb found in open Hawaiian montane bogs dominated by Metrosideros polymorpha and Oreobolus furcatus. Other associated native plant species include Rhyncospora spicaeformis ssp. chinensis, Dubautia paleata, Cheirodendron trigynum, Carex montis-eeka, Drosera anglica, Vaccinium calycinum, Cibotium sp., Viola kauaiensis var. kauaiensis, Coprosma elliptica, Dicranopteris linearis, Dichanthelium isachnoides, Leptecophylla tameiameiae, and Lysimachia daphnoides.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Major Threat(s):||In recent years, most of the bogs have been heavily damaged by feral pigs. Circle Bog is fenced, but fence damage sometimes allows pigs to gain access in. Human disturbance in the form of fire has damaged one bog within the last three years. Invasive introduced plants including Juncus planifolius, Xyris camplanata, Schizachyrium condensatum, also pose a threat. The species is dioecious, and lack of pollination is thought to result in poor seed set. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as extremely vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index 0.896).|
|Conservation Actions:||Astelia waialealae is listed as Endangered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Species Act. It is also listed by the State of Hawaiʻi. It is monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. All remaining individuals are within small fenced, weeded, and monitored areas.|
Fortini, L., Price, J., Jacobi, J., Vorsino, A., Burgett, J., Brinck, K., Amidon, F., Miller, S., Gon II, S., Koob, G. and Paxton, E. 2013. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical report HCSU-044. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: October 17, 2003).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.
|Citation:||Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Clark, M. 2016. Astelia waialealae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T44079A83794760.Downloaded on 14 December 2017.|