|Scientific Name:||Cyanea truncata|
|Species Authority:||(Rock) Rock|
Rollandia truncata Rock
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. and Lorence, D.H. 2005 onwards. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Available at: http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Chau, M., Gon, S.M., Kwon, J., Sporck-Koehler, M., Sugii, N., Weisenberger, L. & Yoshioka, J.M.|
Cyanea truncata is assessed as Critically Endangered. The taxon is endemic to the island of Oʻahu and has an extent of occurrence of 17 km². It has experienced severe and ongoing decline in habitat and numbers due to the impacts of invasive plants and animals. Its area of occupancy is 4 km² and declining. Its distribution is severely limited, with only a single plant left. This qualifies the taxon to a ranking of Critically Endangered under criteria B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
Endemic to the Hawaiian islands, between 240 and 400 m elevation on the island of Oʻahu.
Native:United States (Hawaiian Is.)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
The taxon is extremely rare, with a total known population of a single mature individual plant.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The taxon is a shrub found in Hawaiian subtropical moist lowland forest.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
The major threats to this taxon include direct competition by invasive non-native plant species, and predation and habitat degradation by non-native animals, particularly pigs and goats, which degrade the habitat and harm the plants through predation, trampling, and rooting for food. Alien plants also threaten the species by altering its habitat and competing with it for moisture, nutrients, light, and space. Rats pose a threat to the species through predation of its plant parts and fruits; and introduced slugs and snails threaten the species by feeding on its leaves, stems, and seedlings. Fortini et al. (2013) characterized this taxon as extremely vulnerable to climate change (vulnerability index [0.76]).
The taxon is on the U.S. Endangered Species List, and also on the State of Hawaiʻi Endangered Species List. The single subpopulation does not occur in a protected area, but it is managed and monitored by the Hawaiʻi State Plant Extinction Prevention Program. Ex situ cultivation and propagule storage is also ongoing. Outplantings have occurred, but have not yet produced viable offspring. Further research is needed on general ecology, life history, population size, distribution, and trends; population genetics, and threats.
Cuddihy, L.W. and Stone, C.P. 1990. Alteration of native Hawaiian vegetation; effects of humans, their activities and introductions. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit, University of Hawaii.: 138 pages.
Fortini, L., Price, J., Jacobi, J., Vorsino, A., Burgett, J., Brinck, K., Amidon, F., Miller, S., Gon II, S., Koob, G. and Paxton, E. 2013. A landscape-based assessment of climate change vulnerability for all native Hawaiian plants. Technical report HCSU-044. Hawaii Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hawaii.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-2. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 04 September 2016).
NatureServe. 2003. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 1.8. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. (Accessed: October 16, 2003).
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1998. Recovery plan for the Oahu plants. Portland, Oregon.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Rare plant database. Unpublished.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Cyanea truncata (haha) 5-year review, summary and evaluation.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2012. Cyanea truncata (haha) 5-year review, summary and evaluation.
Wagner, W., Herbst, D. and Sohmer S. 1999. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 91: 1-1918.
|Citation:||Bruegmann, M., Caraway, V.L. & Keir, M. 2016. Cyanea truncata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T44053A83791995.Downloaded on 25 September 2016.|
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