|Scientific Name:||Sapajus apella ssp. apella|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
See Sapajus apella
Cebus apella subspecies apella (Linnaeus, 1758)
|Taxonomic Notes:||Silva Jr (2001, 2002) argued that the tufted capuchins and the untufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) are so distinct in their morphology that they should be considered separate genera. Cebus Erxleben, 1777 for the untufted group, and Sapajus Kerr, 1792 is the name available for the tufted capuchins.
Taxonomy of the tufted capuchins (sensu Hershkovitz 1949, 1955) follows Silva Jr (2001), who did not recognize any subspecific forms. Groves (2001, 2005) presented an alternative taxonomy for the tufted capuchins as follows: C. apella apella (Linnaeus, 1758); C. apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766); C. apella macrocephalus Spix, 1823; C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901; C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939; C. apella ?margaritae Hollister, 1914; C. libidinosus libidinosus Spix, 1823; C. libidinosus pallidus Gray, 1866; C. libidinosus paraguayanus Fischer, 1829; C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939; C. nigritus nigritus (Goldfuss, 1809); C. nigritus robustus Kuhl, 1820; C. nigritus cucullatus Spix, 1823; C. xanthosternos Wied-Neuwied, 1826 (see Fragaszy et al., 2004; Rylands et al., 2005).
Groves (2001) and Silva Jr. (2001) differ in their definitions of the forms Cebus apella (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cebus macrocephalus Spix, 1823. Cebus apella fatuellus (Linnaeus, 1766), C. apella peruanus Thomas, 1901, and C. libidinosus juruanus Lönnberg, 1939 recognized by Groves (2001) are considered junior synonyms of C. macrocephalus by Silva Jr. (2001). C. apella tocantinus Lönnberg, 1939 recognized by Groves (2001) is considered a junior synonym of C. apella by Silva Jr. (2001).
Whereas all other tufted capuchins are considered species (following Silva Jr., 2001), the taxonomic status of the Margarita island capuchin has still to be reviewed. Silva Jr. (2001) did not examine specimens from the Island of Margarita, Venezuela. Groves (2001; see also Linares 1998) supposed that it was introduced in Pre-Columbian times, and found it to be more closely allied to C. a. fatuellus than with C. a. apella. (Note that C. a. fatuellus is recognized as a valid subspecies by Groves but considered by Silva Jr (2001) to be a junior synonym of C. macrocephalus.
The species was transferred to Sapajus (Lynch Alfaro et al. 2012).
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. & Hoffmann, M.|
Listed as Least Concern as the subspecies is widespread and there are currently no major threats resulting in a significant overall population decline that would warrant listing in a threatened category or listing as Near Threatened. Although declines need to be considered over a period of 45 years (three generations), the species is more of a habitat generalist than other species with similar life-histories. However, it is declining in some parts of its range, including southern Para state, Tocantins state, and northern Mato Grosso.
Native:Brazil (Amazonas, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, Tocantins); French Guiana; Guyana; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of (Venezuela (mainland))
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Fragaszy, D. M., Visalberghi, E. and Fedigan, L. 2004. The Complete Capuchin: The Biology of the Genus Cebus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1949. Mammals of northern Colombia. Preliminary report No. 4: Monkeys (Primates) with taxonomic revisions of some forms. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 98: 323–427.
Hershkovitz, P. 1955. Notes on the American monkeys of the genus Cebus. Journal of Mammalogy 36: 449–452.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 28 May 2015).
Linares, O.J. 1998. Mamíferos de Venezuela. Sociedad Conservacionista Audubon de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
Lynch Alfaro, J.W., Silva, J.S. and Rylands, A.B. 2012. How different are robust and gracile Capuchin Monkeys? An argument for the use of Sapajus and Cebus. American Journal of Primatology 74(4): 273–286.
Rylands, A. B, Kierulff, M. C. M. and Mittermeier, R. A. 2005. Some notes on the taxonomy and distributions of the tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus, Cebidae) of South America. Lundiana 6: 97–110.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 2001. Especiação nos macacos-prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Doctoral Thesis, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro.
Silva Jr., J. de S. 2002. Sistemática dos macacos –prego e caiararas, gênero Cebus Erxleben, 1777 (Primates, Cebidae). Livro de Resumos, X Congresso Brasieliero de Primatologia: Amazônia – A Última Fronteira: 35. Bélém, Brazil.
|Citation:||Rylands, A.B., Boubli, J.-P., Mittermeier, R.A. & Wallace, R.B. 2015. Sapajus apella ssp. apella. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 01 September 2015.|
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