|Scientific Name:||Chiropotes utahickae|
|Species Authority:||Hershkovitz, 1985|
Chiropotes satanas subspecies utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985
Chiropotes satanus Hershkovitz, 1985 subspecies utahicki
|Taxonomic Notes:||Hershkovitz (1985) revised the genus Chiropotes and recognized two species, Chiropotes albinasus and Chiropotes satanas, the second containing three subspecies (Chiropotes s. satanas, Chiropotes s. chiropotes and Chiropotes s. utahicki). Based on results of analyses of morphological, morphometric and molecular data, Silva Jr. and Figueiredo (2002) raised the three subspecies to species level, and divided the populations occurring on either side of the rio Branco into two distinct taxa. They proposed a taxonomic arrangement with five species: Chiropotes albinasus, Chiropotes satanas, Chiropotes utahickae, Chiropotes chiropotes and Chiropotes sagulatus Traill, 1821, the latter representing the eastern form of C. chiropotes, which occurs to the east of the rio Branco, in Brazil, Suriname and the Guianas.
The species name is currently in dispute. Hershkovitz (1985) named the subspecies Chiropotes satanas utahicki. However, as the species is named after a woman, in subsequent revisions authors renamed the species Chiropotes (satanas) utahickae (Silva Jr. and Figueiredo 2002; Groves 2005). Brandon-Jones et al. (2006) argue that the Latin gender suffix is part of its etymology and therefore unregulated by Article 31 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, and that the author's selected suffix should be respected and the original spelling preserved.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A3cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Veiga, L. M., Silva Jr. J. S., Ferrari, S. F. & Rylands, A. B.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Endangered as there is reason to believe this species will decline by at least 50% over the coming 30 years (three generations) due mainly to the expanding agricultural frontier in this region, combined with the effects of hunting.
|Range Description:||Endemic to Brazil, the species inhabits the Amazon lowlands, between the Rios Xingu, Amazon and Tocantins-Araguaia (Hershkovitz 1985; Ferrari and Lopes 1996). The exact limits of its range are unknown. However, National Museum (Rio de Janeiro) archives include a record for the region of rio Tapirapé in north-east Mato Grosso, near the forest-savanna transition (J. Siiva Jr. pers. comm.). It is therefore possible that the species occurs in forested areas at the interface between the two biomes.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Using standardized line transects, population densities and sighting rates have been calculated for a number of areas (see Table 1). This species may occur in greater densities in altered habitats and forest fragments than in areas of continuous forest (Bobadilla and Ferrari 1998; Ferrari et al. 1999).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Uta Hick's Bearded Saki is endemic to the fluvial plain of Amazonia, where it occurs in tall terra firme humid forests at low altitudes. It has been recorded in disturbed forests.
This species is highly frugivorou, with the diet comprised of seeds (53%), fruit pulp (26%), flowers (18%) and small quantities of insects, leaves and other plant parts (Santos 2002; Vieira 2005). In a study of a group on an island (129 ha), over 150 plant species were consumed. Important species include Alexa grandiflora (Fabaceae), Annona tenuipes (Annonaceae), Inga alba (Mimosaceae), Eschweilera sp. (Lecythidaceae) and Attalea speciosa (Arecaceae). Home range sizes between 60 and 100 ha, and average daily walking distances of 2.5 km have been recorded (Vieira 2005). Recent studies have demonstrated that eastern Amazonian bearded sakis are more tolerant of anthropogenic habitat disturbance than previously assumed, with groups often able to survive in isolated fragments (<50 ha), some of which have been isolated for over 20 years (Ferrari et al. 2002; Santos 2002; Vieira 2005).
|Major Threat(s):||The key threats to its future survival are habitat loss and fragmentation. The establishment of several large projects (such as the Transamazonian highway BR-230), which bisects the interfluvium from east to west, the Carajás Mineral Complex and the Tucuruí hydroelectric dam, have lead to considerable habitat loss. In the north of the range, the habitat is under pressure from both small-holder and large-scale farming activities and cattle ranching. This species is also hunted for its meat and fur, and hunting pressure is likely to increase due to habitat fragmentation.|
The following federal reserves occur within the Uta Hick’s Bearded Saki’s range in the state of Pará: REBIO de Tapirapé (103,000 ha), FLONA Carajás (411,949 ha), FLONA Caxiuanã (324,060 ha), FLONA Itacaiúna (141,400 ha), FLONA Tapirapé-Aquiri (190,000 ha), APA Igarapé Gelado (21,600 ha), RESEX Ipaú-Anilzinho (55,816 ha) and RDS Itapuã-Baquiá (64,735 ha). State reserves in Pará include: the Parque Estadual da Serra dos Martírios/Andorinhas (24,897 ha), APA Lago de Tucuruí – margem esquerda (568,667 ha), APA São Geraldo do Araguaia (29,655 ha), RDS Alcobaça (36,128 ha) and RDS Pucuruí-Ararão (29,049 ha) (Lopes et al. in press). Surveys are needed south of the rio Tapirapé in northern Mato Grosso to confirm range limits.
The Primate Protection Centre (Centro de Proteção de Primatas Brasileiros: ICM/CPB), of the Federal Environmental Protection Institute (Instituto Chico Mendes), supports and coordinates primate conservation programmes throughout the country. An international committee to discuss and define actions for the conservation of Amazonian primate taxa (Comitê Internacional para Conservação e Manejo dos Primatas Amazônicos), was established by the the CPB and Instituto Chico Mendes (ICM) and together with the members of the Pitheciine Action Group (PAG) are developing a Conservation Action Plan for the Uta Hick’s Bearded Saki.
It is listed on CITES Appendix II.
Ayres, J. M. 1981. Observações sobre a ecologia e o comportamento dos cuxiús (Chiropotes albinasus e Chiropotes satanas, Cebidae: Primates). Dissertação de mestrado, Manaus, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA).
Ayres, J. M. and Nessimian, J. L. 1982. Evidence for insectivory in Chiropotes satanas. Primates 23: 458-459.
Bobadilla, U. L. and Ferrari, S. F. 1998. First detailed field study on Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. Neotropical Primates 6(1): 17-18.
Bobadilla, U. L. and Ferrari, S. F. 2000. Habitat use by Chiropotes satanas utahicki and syntopic platyrrhines in eastern Amazonia. American Journal of Primatology 50: 215-224.
Bonvicino, C. R., Boubli, J. P., Otazú, I. B., Almeida, F. C., Nascimento, F. F., Coura, J. R. and Seuánez, H. N. 2003. Morphologic, karyotypic, and molecular evidence of a new form of Chiropotes (primates, pitheciinae). American Journal o f Primatology 61(3): 123-133.
Brandon-Jones, D., Duckworth, J. W., Jenkins, P. D., Rylands, A. B. and Sarmiento, E. E. 2007. The genitive of species-group scientific names formed from personal names. Zootaxa 1541: 41-48.
Eisenberg, J.F. and Redford, K.H. 1999. Mammals of the Neotropics: The Central Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA.
Ferrari, S., Emidio-Silva, C., Lopes, M. and Bobadilla, U. 1999. Bearded sakis in south-eastern Amazonia—back from the brink? Oryx 33(4).
Ferrari, S. F. and Lopes, M. A. 1996. Primate populations in eastern Amazonia. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Ferrari, S. F., da Silva, S. S. B., Pereira, A. P., Carvalho, M., Santos, R. R. and Veiga, L. M. 2004. Rethinking the ecology of eastern Amazonian bearded sakis (Chiropotes satanas). Resumos do XXth Congress of the International Primatological Society. Folia Primatologica 75(1): 261.
Ferrari, S. F., Iwanaga, S., Ravetta, A. L., Freitas, F. C., Souza, B. A. R., Souza, L. L., Costa, C. G. and Coutinho, P. E. G. 2003. Dynamics of primate communities along the Santarém-Cuiabá Highway in south-Central Brazilian Amazonia. In: L. Marsh (ed.), Primates in Fragments: Ecology and Conservation, pp. 123-144. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, USA.
Ferrari, S. F. Santos, R. R., Silva, S. S. B. and Veiga. L. M. 2002. Manejo de populações do cuxiú, Chiropotes satanas, um primata amazônico ameaçado de extinção, na Área de Influência da Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí, Pará. Projeto aprovado pela Fundação O Boticário de Proteção à Natureza.
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Hershkovitz, P. 1985. A preliminary taxonomy review of the south american bearded saki monkeys genus Chiropotes (Cebidae: Platyrrhini), with the description of a new species. Fieldiana: Zoology 27: 1-46.
Johns, A. D. and Ayres, J. M. 1987. Southern bearded sakis beyond the brink. Oryx 21: 164-167.
Lopes, M. A., Ferrari, S. F., Veiga, L. M. and Silva Jr., J. S. 2008. Cuxiú-de-uta-hick, Chiropotes utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. In: A. B. M. Machado, G. M. Drummond and A. P. Paglia (eds), Livro vermelho das espécies ameaçadas de extinção da fauna brasileira, Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Rylands, A. B. 1994. Cuxiú, Chiropotes satanas utahicki Hershkovitz, 1985. In: G. A. B. da Fonseca, A. B. Rylands, C. M. R. Costa, R. B. Machado and Y. L. R. Leite (eds), Livro Vermelho dos Mamíferos Brasileiros Ameaçados de Extinção, pp. 263-267. Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Santos, R. R. 2002. Ecologia de cuxiús (Chiropotes satanas) na Amazônia Oriental: Perspectivas para a conservação de populações fragmentadas. Dissertação de Mestrado, Universidade Federal do Pará.
Silva Jr., J. S. and Figueiredo, W. M. B. 2002. Revisão sistemática dos cuxiús, gênero Chiropotes Lesson, 1840 (Primates Pithecidae). Livro de Resumos do XO. Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Primatologia, Amazônia - A Última Fronteira: 21. Belém do Pará, Brazil.
Vieira, T. 2005. Aspectos da ecologia do cuxiú de Uta Hick, Chiropotes utahickae (Hershkovitz, 1985), com ênfase na exploração alimentar de espécies arbóreas da ilha de Germoplasma, Tucuruí-PA. Dissertação de Mestrado, Museu Paraense Emílio Goéldi and Universidade Federal do Pará,.
|Citation:||Veiga, L. M., Silva Jr. J. S., Ferrari, S. F. & Rylands, A. B. 2008. Chiropotes utahickae. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 August 2014.|
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