|Scientific Name:||Napaeozapus insignis|
|Species Authority:||(Miller, 1891)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority) & Chanson, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
Listed as Least Concern, because it is widespread, common and its populations are considered stable, there are no major threats at present, and it occurs in some protected areas within its range.
|Range Description:||This species is known from southern Labrador south through eastern Quebec, east through central and southern Ontario and Manitoba, Canada, extending south through adjacent portions of the northeastern United States, and the Appalachian highlands to Georgia (Holden and Musser 2005).|
Native:Canada (Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec); United States (Connecticut, Georgia, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Density ranges from 5-60 individuals per ha (Townsend 1935, cited in Whitaker and Wrigley 1972). In Nova Scotia, density varied greatly among years, mainly as result of variation in overwintering survival of juveniles and breeding success of females (Ovaska and Herman 1988).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It is found primarily in cool, moist wooded areas, especially in spruce-fir and hemlock forest associations. Also known to occur in riparian areas, bogs and swamps. The woodland jumping mouse is crepuscular and nocturnal, and hibernates from September/October through April/May. Shortening day length of late summer signals the additional deposition of fat reserves, preparing individuals for hibernation (Neumann and Cade 1964, cited in Whitaker and Wrigley 1972). During hibernation no additional food is consumed, therefore individuals with insufficient fat reserves do not survive.
Diet varies with season and location, but is known to include fungi, seeds, caterpillars, beetle larvae, and berries. Nests may be built in underground burrows, brush or fallen logs. Breeds May-August. Gestation lasts 21-25 days. Litters size is 1-8 (typically five); 1-2 litters per year (one per year in Nova Scotia). Sexually mature as early as 38 days. In Nova Scotia, no female reproduced in the summer of her birth (Ovaska and Herman 1988).
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species at present. Residential, agricultural and industrial development causing the elimination of vegetative cover reduces available habitat, especially suitable hibernation sites. Climate change may also pose a threat to the viability of this species in two ways. Firstly, cold winters that lack sufficient snowfall to provide an insulating layer may result in high rates of mortality during hibernation. Secondly, increased temperatures may lead to the decline of southern populations, which are already restricted to higher elevations.|
|Conservation Actions:||Additional research is needed to evaluate the current distribution and abundance of this species and to assess the potential effects of threats. Currently, the range of this species falls within several state and national parks, but no conservation measures are in place to address specific needs.|
Holden, M. E. and Musser, G. G. 2005. Family Dipodidae. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 871-893. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Ovaska, K. and Herman, T. B. 1988. Life history characteristics and movements of the woodland jumping mouse, Napaezapus insignis, in Nova Scotia. Canadian Journal of Zoology 66: 1752-1762.
Whitaker Jr., J. O. and Wrigley, R. E. 1972. Napeozapus insignis. Mammalian Species 14: 1-6.
Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Napaeozapus insignis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.|
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