|Scientific Name:||Tamiasciurus hudsonicus|
|Species Authority:||(Erxleben, 1777)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer/s:||Amori, G., Koprowski, J. & Roth, L. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is very widespread, common in suitable habitat throughout its range, and there are no major threats.
|Range Description:||This species ranges widely in northern North America. It occurs from Alaska in the United States, eastward across Canada and southward to Arizona and New Mexico (in the west) and to extreme northern Georgia (in the east) in the United States. It is introduced to Newfoundland in eastern Canada.|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward I., Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); United States (Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It is widespread in North America, and abundant in many areas. Densities of up to 7-8 per hectare have been reported.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It prefers coniferous and mixed forests, but also occurs in deciduous woodlands, hedgerows, and second-growth areas. It prefers to nest in tree cavities; and also constructs leaf nests and uses ground burrows.
It breeds March-April and June-July in Quebec. Gestation lasts 31-35 days. Some females produce two litters per year; litter size averages 4-5. Some females breed when less than one year old (Lair 1986).
This species is more territorial than most other North American tree squirrels. Some populations in British Columbia are limited by food (acting through effect on reproduction) (Sullivan 1990); but factors such as territorial behaviour may limit populations at high density (Klenner and Krebs 1991).
Diet consists of seeds, conifer cones, nuts, fruits. It occasionally feeds on invertebrates and small vertebrates. Commonly caches, and later consumes, large amounts of food. Usually quite conspicuous throughout the day. Most active two hours after sunrise and before sunset.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||The range of this species includes several protected areas.|
Hafner, D. J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland Jr., G. L. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Klenner, W. and Krebs, C. J. 1991. Red squirrel population dynamics. I. The effect of supplemental food on demography. Journal of Animal Ecology 60: 961-978.
Lair, H. 1986. Mating seasons and fertility of red squirrels in southern Quebec. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63: 2323-2327.
Steele, M. A. 1998. Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. Mammalian Species 586: 1-9.
Sullivan, T. P. 1990. Demographic responses of small mammal populations to a herbicide application in coastal coniferous forest: population density and resiliency. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68: 874-883.
Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 06 December 2013.|
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