|Scientific Name:||Spermophilus tridecemlineatus|
|Species Authority:||(Mitchill, 1821)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species is known to hybridize at several localities with S. mexicanus (see Thorington and Hoffmann, in Wilson and Reeder 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.)|
|Reviewer(s):||Amori, G., Koprowski, J. & Roth, L. (Small Nonvolant Mammal Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern because it is very widespread, common throughout almost its entire range, and there are no major threats.
|Range Description:||This species has an extensive range in the central United States and adjoining Canada, from southern Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba southward to extreme east central Arizona, the Texas Gulf Coast, and central Ohio. A disjunct population segment straddles the Arizona-New Mexico border.|
Native:Canada (Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario, Saskatchewan); United States (Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread and common. Densities are estimated at 2.5 to 5/ha in spring and 24.5/ha following emergence of young.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
It is restricted to dry and sandy (and "tighter") soils of open areas, such as grasslands, cultivated fields, meadows, roadsides, airfields, shrublands, and suburban lawns. Beaches and dry pine barrens are also used. It rests, gives birth, and hibernates in underground burrow.
Breeding period is April-June. Gestation lasts 27-28 days. Litter size averages eight, perhaps larger in older females than in younger ones; with one litter per year. Young are weaned in 26 days, and emerge from the burrow about five weeks after birth. They sexually mature by their first spring. Although not colonial, it does prefer to live in loosely constituted families. Home ranges range from less than an acre to 12 acres; the male range is larger than that of the female (Gunderson 1976).
Diet consists of plant and animal foods: seeds, fruits, grasses, forbs, as well as insects. It may sometimes eat small vertebrates. Enters hibernation by October (adults may hibernate beginning in July), emerges in March or early April.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not of conservation concern and its range includes several protected areas.|
Gunderson, H. L. 1976. Mammalogy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, USA.
Hafner, D. J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland Jr., G. L. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Streubel, D. P. and Fitzgerald, J. P. 1978. Spermophilus tridecemlineatus. Mammalian Species 103: 1-5.
Thorington Jr., R. W. and Hoffmann, R. S. 2005. Family Sciuridae. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reader (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 754-818. The John Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Wilson, D. E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Linzey, A.V. & NatureServe (Hammerson, G.) 2008. Spermophilus tridecemlineatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 November 2014.|
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