Podocarpus rumphii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Podocarpaceae

Scientific Name: Podocarpus rumphii Blume
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-16
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Carter, G.
Despite its vast range and occurrence in many locations where the forest remains undisturbed, there is evidence of decline due to logging, especially in the Philippines. The extent of the decline may be approaching 30% over the past 75 years (=three generations), so almost qualifies for listing as threatened under criterion A2cd. We therefore list Podocarpus rumphii as Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from China: Hainan Island; Malesia: Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak, Jawa, Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands (Flores, Timor), Philippines (Luzon), Maluku [Moluccas] (Aru, Obi, Weda);and  Papuasia: New Guinea (incl. Misool and Numfoor Islands), Bismarck Archipelago. A primarily insular species with a very wide distribution.
Countries occurrence:
China (Hainan); Indonesia (Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Maluku, Papua, Sulawesi); Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah); Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago); Philippines
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1
Upper elevation limit (metres):1600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is thought to be decreasing, primarily as a result of lowland deforestation that may have caused a decline of up to almost 30% in the last three generations (75 years).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Podocarpus rumphii is a constituent of lowland to lower montane tropical rainforests, where it can be locally common. It is likely to be confused with the similarly widespread but more ubiquitous species P. neriifolius, which can have similarly large leaves (but usually narrower) and differs in characters not always observable in specimens. The altitude ranges from sea level to 1,600 m, but most collections are from below 500 m a.s.l. In Jawa it is found on limestone, on other islands also on soils ranging from clay to sand derived from acidic rock types. In tall forest (40-50 m) it can reach into the canopy, successfully competing with angiosperms. The large leaves of saplings to pole stage trees could be an adaptation to growing in shade under other trees; they become smaller, narrower and more leathery and stiff in sun-exposed crowns of larger trees.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):25

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Podocarpus rumphii is a valuable timber tree where it attains large sizes with a clear, straight bole. Its wood is used as roundwood for masts, spars, and poles, in house construction as beams, in high-grade construction for flooring, joinery and other carpentry, for furniture and cabinet work, veneer, to make boxes, and for match sticks. In traditional use it was sought after for (dugout) canoes, used in coastal house construction, for household utensils, and wood carving. It is not known to be in cultivation, either as a forestry plantation tree or as an ornamental tree; the species is present in a few tropical botanic gardens and arboreta.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Exploitation has been extensive and in the Philippines this has reportedly led to the situation that this easily exploited tree survives over much of its range only in protected spots.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known from several protected areas within its extensive range.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Other household goods
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK Available at:

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Podocarpus rumphii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42529A2985404. . Downloaded on 20 July 2018.
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