|Scientific Name:||Marmota monax (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Contributor(s):||Hammerson, G.A., Cannings, S. & Linzey, A.|
Listed as Least Concern because it is widespread, common throughout its range, and there are no major threats.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species ranges from central Alaska in the United States, east through Canada south of the tree line to Labrador; in eastern North America south to Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, and Arkansas; in the west absent from the Great Plains, extending down the western mountains to northern Idaho in the United States (Kwiecinski 1998).|
Native:Canada (Alberta, British Columbia, Labrador, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland I, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Québec, Saskatchewan, Yukon); United States (Alabama, Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is common. Reported densities are highly variable, ranging from 0.1/hectare in Quebec to 3.3./hectare in Ohio (Kwiecinski 1998). However, populations are loosely structured because burrow systems are not spatially clustered and animals are asocial and territorial.|
|Current Population Trend:||Stable|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It inhabits low elevation woodland-field ecotones, especially along fields, roads, and streams. It commonly occurs in farmlands and in proximity to human structures. Prefers open areas, such as meadows, pastures, old fields, orchards. Also founds in hilly and rocky areas in open woodlands having fields or meadows adjacent (Caire et al. 1989). For hibernation prefers hedgerows, woods, steep inclines in stony ground, haystacks, or sites with good drainage and a southern exposure (Kwiecinski 1998). |
Young are born in a den in an extensive burrow system. Breeding period extends from early March to mid-April. Gestation lasts 31-32 days. Young are born from April to mid-May. A single litter of 2-6 (average four) is produced each year. Sexually mature in one year. Primarily solitary, except during breeding, though limited social interaction may occur at other times. Abandoned burrows are widely used as den sites by other animals (Kwiecinski 1998).
Diet includes a wide variety of herbs, grasses, and the leaves of shrubs; also invertebrates.
|Generation Length (years):||5|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species. Sometimes regarded as a pest when causing damage to crops, gardens, landscaping, or structures.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is not of conservation concern, and its range includes several protected areas.|
|Errata reason:||This errata assessment has been created because the map was accidentally left out of the version published previously.|
Caire, W., Tyler, J. D., Glass, B. P. and Mares, M. A. 1989. Mammals of Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 April 2017).
Kwiecinski, G. G. 1998. Marmota monax. Mammalian Species 591: 1-8.
Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87–94.
Wilson, D.E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The Smithsonian Book of North American Mammals. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Cassola, F. 2016. Marmota monax (errata version published in 2017). The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T42458A115189992.Downloaded on 17 January 2018.|
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