Pinus echinata 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Pinus echinata Mill.
Common Name(s):
English Shortleaf Pine
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-23
Assessor(s): Farjon, A.
Reviewer(s): Stritch, L. & Thomas, P.
The very wide range and abundance of Pinus echinata, which is actually spreading into abandoned farmland, indicate an assessment of Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from eastern and southeastern USA; occurring across 22 states from New York to eastern Texas.
Countries occurrence:
United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):150
Upper elevation limit (metres):600
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Subpopulations are thought to be increasing as this species recolonizes abandoned farmlands.
Current Population Trend:Increasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:No
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pinus echinata is a lowland pine with an extensive range across the SE United States, mostly growing from ca. 150 m up to the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains at ca. 600 m a.s.l. It is absent in the Mississippi Valley and its delta as well as in a narrow to fairly wide coastal strip along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and it does not extend into most of Florida. This indicates that it is primarily limited by climatic factors, such as the 10º C average annual temperature isoline at its northern limit and an average annual precipitation above 1,000 mm distributed more or less evenly over a year as its southern limit. It grows on a great variety of soils, but most have a capacity for moist retention with a sandy loam or silty loam texture and good drainage. Although this species can form nearly pure stands, in most sites it will be succeeded by broadleaved trees especially oaks (Quercus spp.) except where thin soil overlies rock. There P. echinata forms a minor component of various angiosperm-dominated forest and woodland types. It can also be associated with P. taeda, which has a very similar distribution, but at least in parts of its range occurs in a wetter habitat.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No
Generation Length (years):30

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Shortleaf Pine is an important commercial conifer species in the SE United States and both natural stands and plantations are exploited for timber. The wood is of excellent quality, with orange or yellowish brown heartwood and creamy yellow sapwood; it is used for railway sleepers, construction lumber, indoor finishing like panelling, plywood, furniture, and kraft pulp and dissolving pulp; the latter product feeds the paper industry. Most of the plantation timber goes to pulping. There is a limited use for amenity planting and in urban areas this pine is planted to screen off residential areas from motorways (major highways) or industrial areas. This species has little significance in horticulture and is rarely planted in gardens.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no recorded threats to this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known from several protected areas throughout its extensive range.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Fibre
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Burns, R.M. and Honkala, B.H. 1990. Silvics of North America. USDA, Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK Available at:

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus echinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42359A2974993. . Downloaded on 20 April 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided