|Scientific Name:||Pinus echinata|
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Stritch, L. & Thomas, P.|
The very wide range and abundance of Pinus echinata, which is actually spreading into abandoned farmland, indicate an assessment of Least Concern.
|Previously published Red List assessments:||
|Range Description:||Recorded from eastern and southeastern USA; occurring across 22 states from New York to eastern Texas.|
Native:United States (Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia)
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||150|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||600|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Subpopulations are thought to be increasing as this species recolonizes abandoned farmlands.|
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Pinus echinata is a lowland pine with an extensive range across the SE United States, mostly growing from ca. 150 m up to the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains at ca. 600 m a.s.l. It is absent in the Mississippi Valley and its delta as well as in a narrow to fairly wide coastal strip along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, and it does not extend into most of Florida. This indicates that it is primarily limited by climatic factors, such as the 10º C average annual temperature isoline at its northern limit and an average annual precipitation above 1,000 mm distributed more or less evenly over a year as its southern limit. It grows on a great variety of soils, but most have a capacity for moist retention with a sandy loam or silty loam texture and good drainage. Although this species can form nearly pure stands, in most sites it will be succeeded by broadleaved trees especially oaks (Quercus spp.) except where thin soil overlies rock. There P. echinata forms a minor component of various angiosperm-dominated forest and woodland types. It can also be associated with P. taeda, which has a very similar distribution, but at least in parts of its range occurs in a wetter habitat.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||30|
|Use and Trade:||Shortleaf Pine is an important commercial conifer species in the SE United States and both natural stands and plantations are exploited for timber. The wood is of excellent quality, with orange or yellowish brown heartwood and creamy yellow sapwood; it is used for railway sleepers, construction lumber, indoor finishing like panelling, plywood, furniture, and kraft pulp and dissolving pulp; the latter product feeds the paper industry. Most of the plantation timber goes to pulping. There is a limited use for amenity planting and in urban areas this pine is planted to screen off residential areas from motorways (major highways) or industrial areas. This species has little significance in horticulture and is rarely planted in gardens.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no recorded threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is known from several protected areas throughout its extensive range.|
Burns, R.M. and Honkala, B.H. 1990. Silvics of North America. USDA, Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/.
Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Pinus echinata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42359A2974993. . Downloaded on 28 May 2016.|
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