|Scientific Name:||Abies spectabilis|
|Species Authority:||(D.Don) Spach|
Pinus spectabilis D.Don
|Taxonomic Notes:||Abies spectabilis used to include Abies densa Griff. in the past, but this is treated separately here. However, some older references will give a distribution extending east of East Nepal. The boundary is on the Milke Danda, where A. spectabilis occurs at lower elevations, separated from A. densa, which is in the upper forest.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Zhang, D, Rushforth, K. & Katsuki, T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
Abies spectabilis as a wide distribution from East Nepal into eastern Afghanistan and is usually the dominant tree in the stands but may occur with other conifers or broadleafed trees. The forest has suffered severe depletion, especially at the lower elevations, from logging and deforestation. A population decline of approximately 25% over the past three generation has occurred. This tree is therefore listed as Near Threatened approaching Vulnerable A2.
|Range Description:||This species is found in Afghanistan (Hindu Kush), Pakistan (Karakoram Range), China (W Xizang [Tibet]), India (Kashmir Himalaya) and Nepal ( from the Milke Danda ridge westwards).|
Native:Afghanistan; China (Tibet [or Xizang]); India (Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh); Nepal; Pakistan
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The species has a wide distribution from East Nepal into eastern Afghanistan. It occurs along the southern side of the Himalaya and outlying ridges, forming forests at higher elevation. Abies spectabilis is usually the dominant tree in the stands but may occur with other conifers or broadleafed trees such as Betula and Acer in parts of the range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Abies spectabilis is the dominant tree in the forests of the central and western Himalaya, especially from c. 3,000 m to 4,000 m, with occasional occurrences on ridges below this height. It needs cool moist conditions at the roots, thus growing better on north facing slopes and often giving way to grass or shrubs on south facing ones.|
|Use and Trade:||Abies spectabilis provides a useful timber which is available in large sizes.|
|Major Threat(s):||The forest has suffered severe depletion, especially at the lower elevations, from logging and deforestation. The species is reported to have been lost from the easternmost occurrence in East Nepal in the past 20 years. Deforestation and conversion of land to agriculture is the largest threat, but logging, if followed either by fire or grazing can also lead to the loss of habitat for the species.|
|Conservation Actions:||It is included in some nature reserves in Nepal and India.|
Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008) In Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK. Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/.
Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
|Citation:||Zhang, D, Rushforth, K. & Katsuki, T. 2011. Abies spectabilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 28 February 2015.|
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