Abies nordmanniana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies nordmanniana (Steven) Spach
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Caucasian Fir, Kazazdagi Fir, Nordmann Fir
Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf.
Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Mattf.
Pinus nordmanniana Steven
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
Taxonomic Notes: On the IUCN Red List the Abies populations in northwestern Turkey are all treated as either Abies nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana or A. nordmanniana ssp. equitrojani. This second taxon is restricted to two areas - Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida) and Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus). All other populations in northwest Turkey are treated as the typical subspecies. Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. is included within A. nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana instead of being a distinct species from the mountains along the Black Sea in northwestern Turkey. Most authorities in Turkey accept A. bormuelleriana and A. equi-trojani as distinct species with Abies nordmanniana restricted to eastern parts of Turkey and adjoining areas of the Caucasus (Cicek et al. 2005, Kaya et al. 2008).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-08-05
Assessor(s): Knees, S. & Gardner, M.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.
As this species forms extensive forests which are largely intact and has a widespread distribution throughout the Black Sea Region of northwestern Turkey, eastwards to the western Caucasus, it has been assessed as being of Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The distribution is mainly confined to the mountains adjacent to southern and eastern Black Sea area. There is a concentration of  forests (A. nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana) in west Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia) and northeast Anatolia (Turkey) and another concentration in northwest Anatolia (Turkey). In the extreme northwest of Anatolia lies two disjunct areas (Balikesir; Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida .), Bursa; Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus of Bithynia)) where A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani occurs. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are not known for A. nordmanniana but the extent of the distribution of this species clearly exceeds any criteria for threatened.
Countries occurrence:
Armenia (Nagorno-Karabakh); Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan); Georgia (Abkhaziya, Adzhariya); Russian Federation (Krasnodar); Turkey
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):500
Upper elevation limit (metres):2001
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It occurs in three subpopulations. 1. West Caucasus and northeast Anatolia (Turkey); 2. Turkey - Northwest Anatolia, from Ulu Dag (Olympus) in the west to Kizil Irmak river valley in the east (sometimes referred to as A. bornmuelleriana); 3. Turkey - Kazdagi Mountains in west Anatolia (A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani) (Browicz 1982)
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:High montane zones of mountains on deep fertile soils derived from igneous and granite rocks. It forms both pure stands and mixed with Picea orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra. In the Caucasus it occurs between 1,200-2,200 asl but on damper northern slopes it can grow between 600-800 m asl and in Turkey its altitudinal range is between 200-1,900 m (Browicz 1982).

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: An important timber tree in the Caucasus and Turkey where it is highly valued for its straight grain and easily workable wood for building materials, especially veneer (Farjon 2010). It is used as a commercial plantation tree in many European countries where it is often grown for the Christmas Tree market.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Even though the wood is highly prized, logging has not had a significant detrimental impact on the population. However, the habitat of  A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani is in decline due to a number of negative effects including acid rain, fire, local timber extraction and habitat degradation associated with large visitor numbers in Kazdagi National Park (Satil 2009).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is known from several protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.5. Air-borne pollutants -> 9.5.1. Acid rain
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Browicz, K. 1982. Chorology of trees and shrubs in south-west Asia and adjacent regions. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsawa.

Cipk, F.F., Kayal, Z., Cengell, B.N. and Velioglu, E. 2005. Genetic structure of four Kazdagi Fir (Abies equitrojani Ascherson et Sinten) populations in Kazdagi, Turkey as assessed by adaptive seedling traits. Forest Genetics 12(1): 45-56.

Eckenwalder, J. 2009. Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Farjon, A. 2001. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Kaya, Z. and Raynal, D.J. 2001. Biodiversity and conservation of Turkish forests. Biological Conservation 97: 131-141.

Kaya, Z., Skaags, A. and Neale, D.B. 2008. Genetic Differentiation of Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss) Mattf. Populations from Kazda, Turkey and the Genetic Relationship between Turkish Firs belonging to the Abies nordmanniana Spach Complex. Turkish Journal of Botany 32: 1-10.

Citation: Knees, S. & Gardner, M. 2011. Abies nordmanniana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T42293A10679078. . Downloaded on 16 August 2018.
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