|Scientific Name:||Abies nordmanniana|
|Species Authority:||(Steven) Spach|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf.
Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss.) Mattf.
Pinus nordmanniana Steven
|Taxonomic Notes:||On the IUCN Red List the Abies populations in northwestern Turkey are all treated as either Abies nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana or A. nordmanniana ssp. equitrojani. This second taxon is restricted to two areas - Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida) and Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus). All other populations in northwest Turkey are treated as the typical subspecies. Abies bornmuelleriana Mattf. is included within A. nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana instead of being a distinct species from the mountains along the Black Sea in northwestern Turkey. Most authorities in Turkey accept A. bormuelleriana and A. equi-trojani as distinct species with Abies nordmanniana restricted to eastern parts of Turkey and adjoining areas of the Caucasus (Cicek et al. 2005, Kaya et al. 2008).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Knees, S. & Gardner, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.|
As this species forms extensive forests which are largely intact and has a widespread distribution throughout the Black Sea Region of northwestern Turkey, eastwards to the western Caucasus, it has been assessed as being of Least Concern.
|Range Description:||The distribution is mainly confined to the mountains adjacent to southern and eastern Black Sea area. There is a concentration of forests (A. nordmanniana ssp. nordmanniana) in west Caucasus (Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia and Russia) and northeast Anatolia (Turkey) and another concentration in northwest Anatolia (Turkey). In the extreme northwest of Anatolia lies two disjunct areas (Balikesir; Kaz-Daghi (Mt. Ida .), Bursa; Ulu-Dagh (Mt. Olympus of Bithynia)) where A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani occurs. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are not known for A. nordmanniana but the extent of the distribution of this species clearly exceeds any criteria for threatened.|
Native:Armenia (Armenia, Nagorno-Karabakh); Azerbaijan (Nakhichevan); Georgia (Abkhaziya, Adzhariya); Russian Federation (Krasnodar); Turkey
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||It occurs in three subpopulations. 1. West Caucasus and northeast Anatolia (Turkey); 2. Turkey - Northwest Anatolia, from Ulu Dag (Olympus) in the west to Kizil Irmak river valley in the east (sometimes referred to as A. bornmuelleriana); 3. Turkey - Kazdagi Mountains in west Anatolia (A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani) (Browicz 1982)|
|Habitat and Ecology:||High montane zones of mountains on deep fertile soils derived from igneous and granite rocks. It forms both pure stands and mixed with Picea orientalis, Fagus sylvatica, Pinus sylvestris and Pinus nigra. In the Caucasus it occurs between 1,200-2,200 asl but on damper northern slopes it can grow between 600-800 m asl and in Turkey its altitudinal range is between 200-1,900 m (Browicz 1982).|
|Use and Trade:||An important timber tree in the Caucasus and Turkey where it is highly valued for its straight grain and easily workable wood for building materials, especially veneer (Farjon 2010). It is used as a commercial plantation tree in many European countries where it is often grown for the Christmas Tree market.|
Even though the wood is highly prized, logging has not had a significant detrimental impact on the population. However, the habitat of A. nordmanniana ssp. equi-trojani is in decline due to a number of negative effects including acid rain, fire, local timber extraction and habitat degradation associated with large visitor numbers in Kazdagi National Park (Satil 2009).
|Conservation Actions:||This species is known from several protected areas.|
Browicz, K. 1982. Chorology of trees and shrubs in south-west Asia and adjacent regions. Polish Scientific Publishers, Warsawa.
Cipk, F.F., Kayal, Z., Cengell, B.N. and Velioglu, E. 2005. Genetic structure of four Kazdagi Fir (Abies equitrojani Ascherson et Sinten) populations in Kazdagi, Turkey as assessed by adaptive seedling traits. Forest Genetics 12(1): 45-56.
Eckenwalder, J. 2009. Conifers of the World: The Complete Reference. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
Farjon, A. 2001. World Checklist and Bibliography of Conifers. 2nd edition. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).
Kaya, Z. and Raynal, D.J. 2001. Biodiversity and conservation of Turkish forests. Biological Conservation 97: 131-141.
Kaya, Z., Skaags, A. and Neale, D.B. 2008. Genetic Differentiation of Abies equi-trojani (Asch. & Sint. ex Boiss) Mattf. Populations from Kazda, Turkey and the Genetic Relationship between Turkish Firs belonging to the Abies nordmanniana Spach Complex. Turkish Journal of Botany 32: 1-10.
|Citation:||Knees, S. & Gardner, M. 2011. Abies nordmanniana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 March 2015.|
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