Cercopithecus sclateri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Cercopithecus sclateri Pocock, 1904
Common Name(s):
English Sclater's Monkey, Sclater's Guenon, White-throated Guenon
French Cercopithèque de Sclater
Spanish Cercopiteco de Sclater, Mono de Sclater
Taxonomic Source(s): Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Oates, J.F., Baker, L.R. & Tooze, Z.J.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as Sclater’s Monkey is believed to have undergone a decline exceeding 30% over the past 27 years (assuming a generation length of nine years), due to widespread habitat loss and degradation and hunting. If not for the species’ small size, cryptic nature, adaptability and general non-preferred status among hunters relative to other monkeys, its conservation status would remain Endangered. Consequently, close population monitoring should take place. However, such monitoring will be hampered by insecurity in the Niger Delta and the lack of an organized national programme focusing on this species. For these reasons, along with the prospect of future decline due to continuing degradation and fragmentation of habitat in southern Nigeria, the assessors have reservations about classifying Sclater’s Monkey as Vulnerable. Its status should be frequently reviewed.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to southern Nigeria. It ranges from the eastern Niger Delta in Bayelsa State east to the Cross River, and north to Enugu and Ebonyi States; the most northerly known populations occur in southern Anambra-Enugu States and central Ebonyi State (Baker and Olubode 2008). Sclater’s Monkey was feared extinct until it was sighted southwest of Oguta, Imo State, in 1988 (Oates and Anadu 1989). Additional populations were subsequently discovered in the early to mid-1990s (Oates et al. 1992; Tooze 1995, 1996). More recently, the species was located in several sites where it had not been previously recorded (Baker 2005; Baker and Olubode 2008). Across its range, this species has been recorded in mostly fragmented, degraded forests (Oates et al. 1992; Tooze 1995; Baker and Olubode 2008).
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):130
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Until recently, this species was thought to be very rare, but extensive surveys have revealed its presence at a number of formerly unknown sites (Baker and Olubode 2008). The authors did not encounter any localities of recent extirpation, or sites where local reports indicated that populations of Sclater’s Monkeys had been extirpated even though suitable habitat remains.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The original habitat of this species would be moist tropical lowland forest, but due to severe habitat degradation, Sclater’s Monkey now persists in remnant secondary, gallery/riparian and freshwater swamp forests. The species is also found in marginal forest and farm-bush in communities where monkeys are regarded as sacred (Oates et al. 1992; Tooze 1995; Baker 2005). The species is likely omnivorous, with a diet similar to other members of the C. cephus group: mostly fruits, insects and young foliage (Oates and Baker in press).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Sclater's Monkey occurs in a region with a very dense human population and where most natural forest has been destroyed by logging, conversion to cultivated land and oil exploration (Oates et al. 1992; Baker and Olubode 2008). Of particular concern for this species is severe fragmentation of remaining habitat and thus lack of connectivity among existing populations. Sclater’s is hunted throughout its range (except in the very few places where monkeys are held sacred), but it continues to persist due to preferential hunting of larger-bodied primate taxa and its small size, shy nature and adaptability (Baker and Olubode 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is currently listed as Class B under the African Convention, and under Appendix II of CITES.

There are no protected areas for wildlife in the range of Sclater's Monkey. Baker (2005) suggests the following conservation actions: 1) elevate the species to Schedule I of the Nigerian Endangered Species Decree of 1985 (this change may not be considered unless the species is elevated to CITES Appendix I); 2) raise awareness about the species and its uniquely Nigerian status through publicity and education; and 3) protect key forest areas, including the Edumanom and Upper Orashi Forest Reserves in Rivers and Bayelsa States, the Stubbs Creek Forest Reserve in Akwa Ibom State, and the communities of Ikot Uso Akpan, Lagwa and Akpugoeze. Other potential areas for protection are the Niger floodplain and Osomari Forest Reserve (Oates et al. 1992), and the Blue River (Azumini, Abia State) and Enyong Creek/Ikpa River (Akwa Ibom State) (Tooze 1995).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
1. Forest -> 1.8. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Swamp
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.6. Artificial/Terrestrial - Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.1. Formal education
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.4. Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Baker, L.R. 2005. Distribution and Conservation Status of the Sclater’s Guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in Southern Nigeria. Unpublished report to Margot Marsh Biodiversity Foundation, Rufford Small Grants, Lincoln Park Zoo Dept. of Conservation and Science, American Society of Primatologists, Sigma Xi, National Science Foundation, and Stanford Bay Area Charities.

Baker, L.R. and Olubode, O.S. 2008. Correlates with the distribution and abundance of endangered Sclater’s monkeys (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria. African Journal of Ecology 46(3): 365-373.

Butynski, T.M. 2002. Conservation of the Guenons: An Overview of Status, Threats, and Recommendations. In: M. E. Glenn and M. Cords (eds), The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys, pp. 411-424. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.

IUCN. 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Oates, J.F., Anadu, P.A., Gadsby, E.L. and Werre, J.L. 1992. Sclater's Guenon - A rare Nigerian Monkey Threatened by Deforestation. National Geographic Research and Exploration 8: 476-491.

Oates, J.F. and Anadu, P A. 1989. A field observation of Sclater’s guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri Pocock, 1904). Folia Primatologica: 93–96.

Oates, J.F. and Baker, L.R. 2013. Cercopithecus sclateri. In: T.M. Butynski, J.S. Kingdon and J. Kalina (eds), The Mammals of Africa Vol. II. Primates, pp. 369−371. Bloomsbury Press, London, UK.

Tooze, Z.J. 1995. Update on Sclater’s Guenon Cercopithecus sclateri in Southern Nigeria. African Primates 1(2): 38-41.

Tooze, Z.J. 1996. Bridging Report LNG EIA: The Actual Status of Primates of the Niger Delta. Aquater/TSKJ, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

Citation: Oates, J.F., Baker, L.R. & Tooze, Z.J. 2008. Cercopithecus sclateri. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4229A10678392. . Downloaded on 20 September 2018.
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