Abies holophylla 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Pinaceae

Scientific Name: Abies holophylla Maxim.
Common Name(s):
English Needle Fir, Manchurian Fir
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-16
Assessor(s): Katsuki, T., Zhang, D & Rushforth, K.
Reviewer(s): Thomas, P. & Farjon, A.
Unrestricted logging, especially but not only in the Russian Far East has led to a decline over the last three generations. However, the extent of the decline is estimated to be less than 30%. Consequently Abies holophylla is assessed as Near Threatened (it almost qualifies as threatened under criterion A2d). A continued decline could result in a change of category at the next assessment.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Occurs in NE Asia: from mountains N of Vladivostok (Russian Federation) to South Korea, also in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces of China. The extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy are both beyond the thresholds of the criteria for any threatened category.
Countries occurrence:
China (Heilongjiang, Jilin); Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Russian Federation (Primoryi)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:50000
Lower elevation limit (metres):10
Upper elevation limit (metres):1500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species forms extensive forests in northeast China and Maritime Russia. The status of forests in North Korea are not known. Its range just extends into South Korea on Mount Odae.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Abies holophylla occurs in NE China in low to medium high mountains, in SE Siberia and in  Korea south to Mt Odae. Its elevational range is from 10 m to 1,200 m a.s.l. in the north, to 500-1,500 m a.s.l. in the south of its range. It grows on lithosols of granitic origin. The climate is cold, with wet summers and arid winters with long periods of snow. At higher elevations or in the NE of its range it forms pure stands, or more commonly mixed coniferous forests with Pinus koraiensis, especially in the coastal mountains near the Sea of Japan. In other areas it is a constituent of the northern mixed coniferous deciduous forests, with Abies nephrolepis, Picea spp., Larix gmelinii (var. olgensis) and broad-leaved trees, such as Populus spp., Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus mandshurica, Ulmus spp., and Betula ermanii.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Generation Length (years):50

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Manchurian or Needle Fir is a valuable timber tree in its native area and is exploited mainly in managed forests in much of the region. Most of its wood today is used for plywood and veneer as it is evenly grained, light and easily worked. Minor uses are for soundboards in musical instruments, boxes and sometimes for joinery. In Europe it was introduced around 1905, but, although perfectly hardy and ornamental, remains an uncommon tree mainly seen in arboreta and botanic gardens of the northern hemisphere's cooler regions.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Loss of habitat following extensive logging would appear to be the greatest threat, especially when forests are subjected to repeated burning after logging.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: A proportion of the distribution of this species falls within protected areas, but  the larger part of it is outside such reserves.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score:Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.7. Reduced reproductive success

3. Monitoring -> 3.2. Harvest level trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends

♦  Construction or structural materials
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Other household goods
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK Available at:

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Citation: Katsuki, T., Zhang, D & Rushforth, K. 2013. Abies holophylla. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T42287A2969916. . Downloaded on 18 September 2018.
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