Abies grandis

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
PLANTAE TRACHEOPHYTA PINOPSIDA PINALES PINACEAE

Scientific Name: Abies grandis
Species Authority: (Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl.
Common Name/s:
English Grand Fir, Giant Fir, Lowland Fir
Synonym/s:
Pinus grandis Douglas ex D.Don

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-03
Assessor/s: Farjon, A.
Reviewer/s: Thomas, P. & Stritch, L.
Justification:
Abies balsamea has a great extent of occurrence and occurs in numerous localities as a forest forming dominant or seral dominant. As a result it is assessed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from SW Canada, NW USA: south to N California. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are considerably in excess of 20,000 km2 and 2,000 km2 respectively.
Countries:
Native:
Canada (British Columbia); United States (California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington)
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Forms extensive forests.
Population Trend: Stable

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Grand Fir has its optimum in lowland coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest, but occurs also in the Cascade Range and the northern Rocky Mountains, to the west of the Continental Divide. It grows from near sea level to ca. 1,800 m a.s.l., on a variety of soils derived from granitic or basaltic rock, best development is on alluvial soils with a relatively high ground water table. In the Pacific Northwest the climate is moist maritime to wet, with annual precipitation from as low as 500 mm to 2,500 mm, in the upland interior the winters are snowy and cold, the precipitation ranges from 500 mm to 1,250 mm. It grows in pure stands in some areas in Idaho, but is usually mixed with Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies amabilis, Picea sitchensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla or Larix occidentalis (in the interior). Broad-leaved associated trees are e.g. Acer macrophyllum, Alnus rubra (along streams), and Fraxinus latifolia, while the shrub layer is formed by Acer circinatum in coastal areas and Amelanchier alnifolia and Rosa spp. in the interior.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Although logged in the past and in the present in many parts of its range, under “uneven-aged management” this species regenerates well. Aside from “old growth issues” logging of Grand Fir is not a serious conservation concern at the species level.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species forms an important part of the forest canopy in many protected areas within its large range.

Bibliography [top]

Burns, R.M. and Honkala, B.H. 1990. Silvics of North America. USDA, Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008) In Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK. Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/.

Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Citation: Farjon, A. 2013. Abies grandis. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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