|Scientific Name:||Abies grandis|
|Species Authority:||(Douglas ex D.Don) Lindl.|
Pinus grandis Douglas ex D.Don
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Thomas, P. & Stritch, L.|
Abies balsamea has a great extent of occurrence and occurs in numerous localities as a forest forming dominant or seral dominant. As a result it is assessed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Recorded from SW Canada, NW USA: south to N California. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are considerably in excess of 20,000 km2 and 2,000 km2 respectively.|
Native:Canada (British Columbia); United States (California, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Washington)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Forms extensive forests.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Grand Fir has its optimum in lowland coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest, but occurs also in the Cascade Range and the northern Rocky Mountains, to the west of the Continental Divide. It grows from near sea level to ca. 1,800 m a.s.l., on a variety of soils derived from granitic or basaltic rock, best development is on alluvial soils with a relatively high ground water table. In the Pacific Northwest the climate is moist maritime to wet, with annual precipitation from as low as 500 mm to 2,500 mm, in the upland interior the winters are snowy and cold, the precipitation ranges from 500 mm to 1,250 mm. It grows in pure stands in some areas in Idaho, but is usually mixed with Pseudotsuga menziesii, Abies amabilis, Picea sitchensis, Calocedrus decurrens, Thuja plicata, Tsuga heterophylla or Larix occidentalis (in the interior). Broad-leaved associated trees are e.g. Acer macrophyllum, Alnus rubra (along streams), and Fraxinus latifolia, while the shrub layer is formed by Acer circinatum in coastal areas and Amelanchier alnifolia and Rosa spp. in the interior.|
|Use and Trade:||Rapid growth and great size make this species an important timber tree. The wood is soft and white and an excellent source of pulpwood. For construction timber it is considered less desirable due to its relative weakness and limited durability. In the Pacific Northwest young trees are valued as Christmas trees because they tend to grow up very symmetrically and have lustrous green foliage. Grand Fir is commonly grown as an amenity tree in large gardens and city parks and, as another David Doulas introduction, it was planted in nearly all landscape gardens laid out in the nineteenth century in Europe, where some trees have now attained impressive sizes. In horticulture it is much in use and a substantial number of cultivars have been selected for garden planting|
|Major Threat(s):||Although logged in the past and in the present in many parts of its range, under “uneven-aged management” this species regenerates well. Aside from “old growth issues” logging of Grand Fir is not a serious conservation concern at the species level.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species forms an important part of the forest canopy in many protected areas within its large range.|
Burns, R.M. and Honkala, B.H. 1990. Silvics of North America. USDA, Forest Service, Washington, DC.
Farjon, A. 2010. Conifer Database (June 2008) In Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2010 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., eds). Reading, UK. Available at: http://www.catalogueoflife.org/.
Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
|Citation:||Farjon, A. 2013. Abies grandis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 April 2015.|
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