Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Cercopithecus preussi
Species Authority: Matschie, 1898
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Preuss’s Monkey, Preuss's Guenon
Spanish Mono De Preuss
Taxonomic Notes: This species may be better placed in the genus Allochrocebus (see, for example, Tosi et al. 2004). It is here divided into two subspecies, C. preussi preussi and C. p. insularis, following Grubb et al. (2003) and Groves (2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Oates, J.F.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
This species is listed as Endangered as it is believed to have undergone a decline exceeding 50% over the past ~27 years across its restricted range, mainly as a result of increasing habitat loss in the Nigeria/ Cameroon highlands and also from hunting.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2000 Endangered (EN)
1996 Endangered (EN)
1994 Endangered (E)
1990 Endangered (E)
1988 Endangered (E)
1988 Endangered (E)
1986 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has a restricted distribution in western Cameroon, eastern Nigeria, and on Bioko Island. It is most abundant in montane and sub-montane forest up to at least 2,500 m asl. Its range includes isolated patches of forest in the grasslands of the Cameroon Highlands.

This species is divided into two subspecies: C. preussi preussi, on the mainland, and C. p. insularis, which is restricted to Bioko Island.
Countries occurrence:
Cameroon; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko); Nigeria
Upper elevation limit (metres): 2500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There has been no comprehensive population survey of this species, except on Bioko where the species has undergone declines exceeding 55% over a 20-year period (1986-2006; Hearn et al. 2006). On the mainland, the species is uncommon and highly fragmented.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is found mainly in montane and submontane forest above 800 m, and on Bioko shows a preference for Schefflera forest (Gonzalez Kirchner 2004; Hearn et al. 2006). It is also more rarely found in lowland forest (e.g., to 450 in the Caldera on Bioko), and can occur in isolated forest patches in mountainous grasslands. They have semi-terrestrial habits and are found usually in the understorey of the forest. Little is known about feeding behaviour, but it is known to eat fruits, seeds, leaves, and flowers. This species lives in groups of 2-12 animals, consisting of a single male and several females with their young.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species’ population size and distribution have been severely affected by habitat destruction and hunting. For example, Cameroon’s forests have been severely eroded by cultivation, fire and collection of wood for fuel. As a result, little montane forest remains in the mainland part of this species’ range. This species is highly susceptible to human predation because it is semi-terrestrial and relatively large-bodied, and hunting has led to a decline in its population across its range, but particularly on Bioko.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed as Class B under the African Convention, and under Appendix II of CITES. The species occurs in the Okwangwo division of Cross River National Park and on the adjacent Obudu Plateau (Nigeria), Pico Basile National Park and the Southern Highlands Scientific Reserve (Bioko), and in the Takemanda Forest Reserve, Ibo Forest, and Banyang-Mbo Forest (Cameroon) which has been proposed for elevated protection status. Surveys of the status and distribution across its range are needed. None of the montane forest areas of the Cameroon highlands, the most important remaining habitat for this species, are formally protected and require urgent conservation action.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Marginal  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.1. Nomadic grazing
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Butynski, T. M. 2002. Conservation of the Guenons: An Overview of Status, Threats, and Recommendations. In: M. E. Glenn and M. Cords (eds), The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys, pp. 411-424. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.

Butynski, T. M. 2002. The Guenons: An Overview of Diversity and Taxonomy. In: M. E. Glenn and M. Cords (eds), The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys, pp. 3-13. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.

Gonzalez-Kirchner, J. P. 2004. Habitat preference of the Preuss's guenon (Cercopithecus preussi), on Bioko island, Equatorial Guinea. Human Evolution 19: 239-245.

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R., Groves, C. P. and Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.

Hearn, G. W., Morra, W. A. and Butynski, T. M. 2006. Monkeys In Trouble: The Rapidly Deteriorating Conservation Status Of The Monkeys On Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (2006). Report prepared by the Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program (BBPP).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Tosi, A. J., Melnick, D. J. and Disotell, T. R. 2004. Sex chromosome phylogenetics indicate a single transition to terrestriality in the guenons (tribe Cercopithecini). Journal of Human Evolution 46: 223-237.

Citation: Oates, J.F. 2008. Cercopithecus preussi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4227A10685323. . Downloaded on 06 October 2015.
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