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Cercopithecus pogonias

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA PRIMATES CERCOPITHECIDAE

Scientific Name: Cercopithecus pogonias
Species Authority: Bennett, 1833
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Crowned Monkey, Wolf's Monkey, Golden-bellied Guenon, Golden-bellied Monkey, Crowned Guenon
French Guenon Couronné, Mone
Spanish Mono Coronado
Taxonomic Notes: There is not full agreement on the relationships of the populations grouped into this species, with some authorities separating C. p. wolfi and C. p. denti as separate species (Groves 2001, 2005). Grubb et al. (2003) recognized seven different subspecies, the treatment provisionally adopted here, but further taxonomic work is required.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Oates, J.F., Hart, J., Butynksi, T. & Groves, C.P.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Justification:
This species is listed as Least Concern in view of its widespread distribution and because it is not likely to be declining fast enough to warrant listing in a higher category of threat.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This widespread species ranges from the Cross River in Nigeria, east and south to the Congo Basin where it is widespread and found throughout, ranging eastwards to Rwanda, and Uganda, and southwards into the forests south of the River Kasai. Also present on Bioko Island, where it has a limited distribution on the southern slopes of the Southern Highlands up to about 1,250 m asl; a small population on the southern slopes of Pico Basile was probably hunted out in 2000 (Hearn et al. 2006).

There are seven subspecies:

The distribution of the nominate subspecies, C. p. pogonias is a little unclear. Gautier-Hion et al. (1999) restrict it to Bioko, Equatorial Guinea, with an unnamed subspecies replacing C. p. pogonias on the mainland north of the Sanaga River. However, Groves (2001) records C. p. pogonias as occurring from the Cross River across the River Sanaga to Río Muni, and includes Bioko. The current treatment considers this subspecies to include the animals on Bioko, as well as the form occurring on the mainland between the Cross and Niger Rivers.

According to Groves (2001), the subspecies C. p. nigripes ranges from Río Muni (Equatorial Guinea), Gabon and Congo, south into Cabinda (Angola). However, this distribution does not conform with that mapped by Gautier-Hion et al. (1999), who map grayi as the form in Cabinda.

C. p. grayi ranges from south Cameroon (middle Sanaga River) east to the Central African Republic, and south into Congo, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo north of the Congo River. It ranges as far eastwards as about the Itimbiri River north of the Congo River. Gautier-Hion et al. (1999) map this species occurring south to the mouth of the Congo River.

C. p. denti is found in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo to the east and north of the Congo-Lualaba River, extending north into the Central African Republic, but not found to the west of the Itimbiri River. This subspecies has also been recorded from western Rwanda and Uganda.

The subspecies C. p. wolfi ranges between the Congo and Sankuru Rivers in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

C. p. elegans ranges between the Lomani and Lualaba Rivers south of 2ºS.

C. p. pyrogaster is found between the Rivers Kwango and Kasai-Lulua in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola.
Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Cameroon; Central African Republic; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Equatorial Guinea (Bioko); Gabon; Nigeria; Rwanda; Uganda
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: It is common in some parts of its range, but rare in some regions. Unlike for many other primates on Bioko, this island may be one of the strongholds for C. pogonias and especially for the nominate subspecies. In 1992, Mate and Colell (1995) found C. p. pogonias to be by far the most common monkey at their study side on the south-east coast of Bioko, recording densities of 1.8-2.25 individuals/km², perhaps because hunting of primates is lower on the south coast of Bioko as anywhere on the island (T. Butynski pers. obs.). Hearn et al. (2006) did not record any significant decline of the species on Bioko between 1986 and 2006.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: It is associated with lowland tropical forest, especially primary high-canopy forest, but may also be found in mature secondary mature up to submontane and montane elevations. This species lives in groups of eight to 20 animals.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has been impacted in parts of its range by habitat loss through deforestation, agriculture and human settlement, and it is also hunted for meat across most of its range.

Results of survey work in Korup N. P. in Cameroon suggest that, although C. pogonias is small bodied, it might be more vulnerable to hunting than other guenon species due to its relatively narrow feeding and habitat requirements. Populations of C. p. pogonias appear to be declining in the north-east section of Korup N. P. and might have already been extirpated from areas of the park that are most heavily hunted and where anti-poaching patrols are absent. Results from forests near to Korup N. P. also suggest that hunting has reduced or eliminated populations of C. pogonias. However, populations appear to be increasing in southern Korup N. P. This may be the result of the relatively low hunting pressure (compared with north-east Korup) and/or a potentially more favourable habitat for this species in southern Korup (Linder 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. This widespread species is present in several protected areas, including Korup National Park (Cameroon) - an important stronghold to insure the survival of C. pogonias in the Cameroon-Nigeria border area - Odzala National Park (Congo), Monte Alen National Park (Equatorial Guinea) and Salonga National Park (DR Congo). Further taxonomic work is needed to elucidate the status of the various subspecies, and particularly to ascertain whether some forms merit recognition as distinct species.

Bibliography [top]

Butynski, T. M. 2002. Conservation of the Guenons: An Overview of Status, Threats, and Recommendations. In: M. E. Glenn and M. Cords (eds), The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys, pp. 411-424. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.

Butynski, T. M. 2002. The Guenons: An Overview of Diversity and Taxonomy. In: M. E. Glenn and M. Cords (eds), The Guenons: Diversity and Adaptation in African Monkeys, pp. 3-13. Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers, New York, Boston, Dordrecht, London, Moscow.

Gautier-Hion, A. Colyn, M. and Gautier, J.-P. 1999. Histoire Naturelle des Primates d'Afrique Centrale. Ecofac, Gabon.

Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.

Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R., Groves, C. P. and Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.

Hearn, G. W., Morra, W. A. and Butynski, T. M. 2006. Monkeys In Trouble: The Rapidly Deteriorating Conservation Status Of The Monkeys On Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea (2006). Report prepared by the Bioko Biodiversity Protection Program (BBPP).

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Natural World, San Diego, California, USA.

Linder, J. M. 2008. The Impact of Hunting on Primates in Korup National Park, Cameroon: Implications for Primate Conservation. Ph.D. Thesis, University of New York.


Citation: Oates, J.F., Hart, J., Butynksi, T. & Groves, C.P. 2008. Cercopithecus pogonias. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 July 2014.
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