Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Pinopsida Pinales Araucariaceae

Scientific Name: Araucaria montana
Species Authority: Brongn. & Gris
Taxonomic Source(s): Farjon, A. 2010. A Handbook of the World's Conifers. Koninklijke Brill, Leiden.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-11-04
Assessor(s): Thomas, P.
Reviewer(s): Farjon, A. & Gardner, M.
Contributor(s): Munzinger, J., Jaffré, T. & Lowry, P.
This is the most widespread Araucaria on New Caledonia. However, the majority of subpopulations, especially those in the isolated northern ultrabasic massifs and the Canala/Poro have been and will continue to be affected by mining activities. Its current extent of occurrence, the fragmentation of the existing subpopulations, a continuing decline in area of occupancy, extent of occurrence and quality of habitat coupled with a projected 30% decline in total population within the next 100 years (three generations is longer than this) means that it meets the criteria for VU.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1998 Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in scattered subpopulations throughout the main island of New Caledonia. An isolated subpopulation occurs on the Ile d'Art.  The species occurs at elevations ranging from 500 to 1,400 m.
Countries occurrence:
New Caledonia
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 104
Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in area of occupancy (AOO): No
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2: 7676
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO): Yes
Extreme fluctuations in extent of occurrence (EOO): No
Number of Locations: 10
Continuing decline in number of locations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in the number of locations: No
Lower elevation limit (metres): 500
Upper elevation limit (metres): 1400
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Subpopulations may be locally extensive and cover several square kilometers.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals: Yes
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: Yes
Continuing decline in subpopulations: Yes
Extreme fluctuations in subpopulations: No All individuals in one subpopulation: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

A. montana is widely distributed in dense and low humid forests and in tall maquis minier throughout most of Grand Terre. It usually occurs on plateaus situated below summit ridges in areas that favour the formation of deep ore bodies just above the bedrock.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes
Generation Length (years): 35-100

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Open cast mining, its associated activities and an increase in fire frequencies are the main threats to this species except in locations in the north east where it is unlikely that mining will occur.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Currently known from only two protected areas (Mt Panie and Mt Do).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jaffré, T., Munzinger, J. and Lowry, P.P. 2010. Threats to the conifer species found on New Caledonia's ultramafic massifs and proposals for urgently needed measures to improve their protection. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 1485-1502: DOI 10.1007/s10531-010-9780-6.

Manauté, J., Jaffré, T., Veillon, J.-M. and Kranitz, M. 2003. Revue des Araucariaceae de Nouvelle-Calédonie. IRD, Nouméa.

Mill, R.R. and Farjon, A. In prep. A Monograph of Araucaria. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh.

Citation: Thomas, P. 2010. Araucaria montana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T42197A10661614. . Downloaded on 07 October 2015.
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