Muntiacus reevesi 

Scope: Global

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Cervidae

Scientific Name: Muntiacus reevesi
Species Authority: (Ogilby, 1839)
Common Name(s):
English Reeves' Muntjac, Reeve’s Muntjac, Formosan Reeves' Muntjac, Chinese Muntjak, Reeves's Muntjac
Cervulus bridgemani Lydekker, 1910
Cervulus micrurus Sclater, 1875
Cervulus reevesi ssp. pingshiangicus Hilzheimer, 1906
Cervulus sclateri Swinhoe, 1872
Cervulus sinensis Hilzheimer, 1905
Cervus lachrymans Milne-Edwards, 1871
Cervus reevesi Ogilby, 1839
Muntiacus lachrymans ssp. teesdalei Wroughton, 1914
Taxonomic Notes: Three subspecies are known:
Muntiacus reevesi jiangkouensis (mainland China);
Muntiacus reevesi reevesi (mainland China);
Muntiacus reevesi micrurus (Taiwan).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Leasor, H., Chiang, P.J. & Pei, K.J-C.
Reviewer(s): Black, P.A. & Gonzalez, S. (Deer Red List Authority)
This species is considered Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large global population, occurrence in protected areas, and because its is not declining at a rate significant enough to qualify for a higher level of threat. However, this species is highly exploited in the industrial trade and there is significant habitat loss across many parts of its range. In addition, it should be noted that some of the reason for the relative lack of concern for this species may stem from its abundance in the UK rather than from its status in its native range in China and Taiwan.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs widely in central and southern China and, and also on Taiwan. In China, this species ranges from coastal and south China to Jiangsu, Anhui, Henan, Shaanxi and Gansu (Smith and Xie 2008). Additionally, it occurs in eastern and central Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian, Zheijiang, Jiangxi, Hunan and Hubei. The species has been introduced to England (where it is still present) and France (where it is no longer present) (Grubb, 2005).
Countries occurrence:
China; Taiwan, Province of China
United Kingdom
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):50
Upper elevation limit (metres):3500
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In China, no population estimates or estimates of population trend are available. It is generally not considered to be highly threatened, although a recent China red listing categorizes the species as Vulnerable (Smith and Xie 2008). There is very little published information on the species in China. In Taiwan, where it is heavily exploited, the density was estimated at 9.3 animals/km² at elevations around, 2,000 m asl (McCullough et al. 2000); however, in areas without hunting and at lower elevations, the population density could be much higher (Chiang 2007).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The species occurs in temperate forests and in dense forests in the tropical and semi-tropical zone. In Taiwan, it occurs in mountains between 50-3,500 m asl in habitats ranging from tropical/subtropical lowlands to coniferous forests/alpine grassland at the highest altitudes. However, there is a decreasing trend in abundance with increasing altitude (Chiang 2007). In China, Reeve’s muntjacs occupy rocky places and open woodlands of pine and oak. They seek cover in steep ravines, and usually have well defined areas to which they retreat (Smith and Xie 2008). But in Taiwan, they were found mostly in forested areas (Pei and Chiang 2004), preferably in primary forest with dense canopy cover and tended to avoid steep terrain (Chiang 2007). They are basically solitary, although sometimes found in pairs or small family groups. Home ranges average about 100 ha, overlap considerably, and do not vary in size by gender. Females mature within first year. They appear to lack strong seasonality in reproduction (Hayssen et al. 1993, Smith and Xie 2008). Gestation is 209-220 days. In Taiwan, the species grow new antlers mostly in summer (peaking in June and July) (Pei and Liu 1994) (Pei and Chiang 2004) although velvet antlers were sporadically found throughout the year (Pei and Chiang 2004). In Taiwan, camera trapping data in remote areas with least human activities showed that Reeve’s muntjacs in Taiwan is crepuscular with significantly more diurnal than nocturnal activities (68% vs. 32%, Pei and Chiang 2004), which agreed with radio-telemetry results (McCullough et al. 2000). It is most active during the 2 hours after sunrise and before sunset and seasonal variations of activity levels were more pronounced in the afternoon (Pei and Chiang 2004).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats to this species include habitat destruction and hunting. It is hunted for food and for hides which are used in the chamois market. Forest habitat is being lost in many parts of its range, in particular because of agriculture, logging and urbanisation. However, there is no information on the overall rate of decline of this very widespread species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The species seems to be relatively secure in appropriate habitat, but its range is in an area where there is a high human population density and very heavy exploitation of wildlife. There is a need to monitor this species' habitat and population levels. In China, the species is not protected by national laws, but is protected under provincial regulations in Anhui, Henan, and Gansu. It presumably occurs in a number of protected areas.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Shrubland -> 3.7. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.1. Legislation -> 5.1.3. Sub-national level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.3. Sub-national level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Wearing apparel, accessories
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Chiang, P. J. 2007. Ecology and conservation of Formosan clouded leopard, its prey, and other sympatric carnivores in southern Taiwan. Thesis, Virginia Tech.

Grubb, P. 2005. Artiodactyla. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed), pp. 637-722. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA.

Hayssen, V., van Tienhoven, A. and van Tienhoven, A. 1993. Asdell's Patterns of Mammalian Reproduction: A Compendium of Species-specific Data. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York, USA.

McCullough, D. R., Pei, K. C. J. and Wang, Y. 2000. Home range, activity patterns, and habitat relations of Reeves' muntjacs in Taiwan. Journal of Wildlife Management 64: 430-441.

Pei, K. and Liu, H. W. 1994. Reproductive biology of male Formosan Reeves' muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi micrurus). Journal of Zoology (London) 233: 293-306.

Pei, K. J.-C. and Chiang, P. J. 2004. Present status and conservation of Formosan clouded leopard and other medium-to-large mammals at Tawu Nature Reserve and vicinities (3). Report Conservation Research Series No.92-02. Council of Agriculture, Taiwan Forestry Bureau.

Smith, A.T. and Xie, Y. 2008. A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Citation: Leasor, H., Chiang, P.J. & Pei, K.J-C. 2008. Muntiacus reevesi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T42191A10659134. . Downloaded on 26 August 2016.
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