Cercopithecus hamlyni 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Cercopithecus hamlyni
Species Authority: Pocock, 1907
Common Name(s):
English Owl-faced Monkey, Hamlyn’s Monkey, Owl-faced Guenon
French Cercopithèque D'Hamlyn
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies have been named (see Grubb et al. 2003, Grubb 2005): C. h. kahuziensis, which lacks a prominent white nose stripe, is reported to be restricted to a small part of the bamboo forest of Mount Kahuzi, Democratic Republic of the Congo; C. h. hamlyni is found throughout the remainder of the species' range. However, recent surveys in Kahuzi-Biega National Park identified C. h. hamlyni, which has a prominent white nose stripe, in areas reported to represent the range of C. h. kahuziensis. In addition, the nose stripe appears to be variably present in populations in the lowlands (Kaleme, Hart and Finch pers. comm.), and as such subspecies are not recognized here pending further investigation.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A4cd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Hart, J. & Butynski, T.M.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Vulnerable as the species has undergone past declines and continues to do so. The entire range of the species is in a region of intense conflict, which has exacerbated the identified threats. It is expected that these declines will continue in the face of ongoing political climates, resulting in an overall population reduction of more than 30% over a 30-year time-frame (given a 10-year generation period).
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1994 Vulnerable (V)
1990 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1988 Vulnerable (V)
1986 Insufficiently Known (K)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species ranges from the the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it is found in lowlands from the Congo/Lualaba River to the Ituri Forest and into the Albertine Rift and Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda. It occurs north to the Lindi-Nepoko river system and south to the southern tropical moist forest limit, where its range limit is poorly defined. Although it is generally a lowland species, it also occurs in the mountains of Albertine Rift, where many records come from the bamboo zone. The easternmost highland populations of C. hamlyni are now isolated in fragmented habitat islands and some have been extirpated (e.g., Gishwati, Rwanda, the Virunga Volcanos, and forest islands between Kahuzi-Biega National Park and Massisi). The species occurs above 3,000 m in both Tshiberimu and Kahuzi, so it seems safe to assume that 3,200 m is the upper elevation limit.
Countries occurrence:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Rwanda
Upper elevation limit (metres):3200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Widespread, and apparently most common in the lowlands of Kahuzi-Biega National Park (densities of 5-7 individuals per km²; Hall et al. 2006). Most extant populations in montane sites are small. A cryptic and quiet species, which is difficult to census.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A predominantly terrestrial species found in lowland and mid-montane tropical moist forest and montane bamboo forest. Mean group size in Kahuzi-Biega lowlands and the Ituri forest is 2-3 (Hall et al. 2006; J. Hart, unpubl.).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation in the montane areas (due to shifting agriculture). In addition, it is intensely hunted in some areas, particularly in lowland areas where snaring is common.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix II of CITES and on Class B of the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. It is present in the Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Okapi Wildlife Reserve, Maiko National Park, and Virunga National Parks in DRC, and in Nyungwe Forest Reserve in Rwanda. Presence in Itombwe Massif is not yet confirmed. Additional research on population numbers and range is required, and this species would benefit from control of bushmeat trade.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability: Suitable  
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.2. Trade management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Groves, C.P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R., Groves, C. P. and Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.

Hall, J. S., White, L. J. T, Williamson, E. A., Inogwabini, B.-I. and Omari, I. 2006. Distribution, abundance, and biomass estiamtes for primates within Kahuzi-Biega lowlands and adjacent forest in eastern DRC. African Primates 6(1-2): 35-42.

Citation: Hart, J. & Butynski, T.M. 2008. Cercopithecus hamlyni. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T4219A10657863. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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