|Scientific Name:||Dama dama (Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Two subspecies; Dama dama dama (original range includes Turkey and possibly parts of south-eastern Europe, widely introduced) and D. d. mesopotamica (formerly found in Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Iran and Iraq; now restricted to Iran, possibly Iraq, and Israel where it recently has been reintroduced) (Wemmer 1998, Bar-David et al. 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern (Regional assessment) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||European Mammal Assessment team|
|Reviewer(s):||Helen Temple and Craig Hilton-Taylor|
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 25 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
As a result of introductions by the Phoenicians, Romans, and Normans, it is a widespread and abundant species in Europe. Classed as Least Concern at the regional level. However, in its non-European native range this species is under serious threat.
|Range Description:||A western Palaearctic species. Its original range includes the Near and Middle East and possibly parts of south-eastern Europe. It was introduced to the western Mediterranean by the Phoenicians, and to central and northern Europe by the Romans and Normans. More recently, it has been introduced to many countries worldwide (e.g. New Zealand, where it is considered a pest) (Apollonio 1999). In Portugal most of the specimens occur within confined areas, such as parks and private hunting areas, and apart from a few scattered individuals there is no wild population (Cabral et al. 2005).|
Introduced:Austria; Belarus; Belgium; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; France; Germany; Hungary; Ireland; Latvia; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; Slovakia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Ukraine; United Kingdom
Present - origin uncertain:Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Cyprus; Greece; Italy; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Serbia; Slovenia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Most introduced populations in Europe are stable (Apollonio 1999). However, in its native range outside Europe, this species has suffered severe declines and has disappeared from a number of countries where it was formerly found (Wemmer 1998).|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A highly adaptable species that can survive in a wide range of habitats.|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species in Europe. In the species' native range outside Europe, hunting and habitat conversion for agriculture caused massive declines in the past, and habitat degradation continues to be a serious threat (Wemmer 1998).|
|Conservation Actions:||Listed on Appendix III of the Bern Convention. Subspecies mesopotamica is listed on CITES Appendix I (as D. mesopotamica). Occurs in a number of protected areas.|
Appollonio, M. 1999. Dama dama. In: A.J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P.J.H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J.B.M. Thissen, V. Vohralík, and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals. Academic Press, London..
Bar-David, S., Saltz, D., Dayan, T., Dolev, A. and Perelberg, A. 2005. Demographic models and reality in reintroductions: the Persian fallow deer in Israel. Conservation Biology 19:131-138.
Cabral, M.J. 2005. Livro Vermelho dos Vertebrados de Portugal. Instituto da Conservação da Natureza, Lisboa.
Temple, H.J. and Terry, A. (compilers). 2007. The status and distribution of European mammals. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Wemmer, C. (ed.). 1998. Deer: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN/SSC Deer Specialist Group. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK..
|Citation:||European Mammal Assessment team. 2007. Dama dama. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2007: e.T42188A10656222.Downloaded on 20 March 2018.|
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