|Scientific Name:||Cycas circinalis|
Cycas circinalis L. subspecies angustifolia Miq.
Cycas undulata Desf. ex Gaudich.
Cycas wallichii Miq.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2acd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Varghese, A., Krishnamurthy, V., Garnesan, R. & Manu, K.|
|Reviewer(s):||Donaldson, J.S. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
Classified as Endangered based on the amount of habitat (50%) estimated to have been lost in the past 60 years (<2 generations). Populations in Maharashta, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and parts of Kerala have declined substantially. The decline is expected to continue as the drivers of decline still exist.
|Range Description:||C. circinalis is now known to be an Indian endemic, restricted to the Western Ghats, in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and may also occur south of Maharashtra.|
Native:India (Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu)
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species occurs at at least 12 sites.
1. Coonoor, Kotagiri, NE slopes of Niligriis (1,000 m), Tamil Nadu - > 500 individuals (dry deciduous forest, savanna woodland)
2. Mettupalyam hills (500-300 m), Tamil Nadu. <500 individuals (Riparian zone)
3. Pillur Slopes (800-500 m), Tamil Nadu, <500 individuals (Semi evergreen, Savanna woodlands and dry deciduous forests)
4. Annamalais, South Tamil Nadu, >300 (Teak plantations, Moist Deciduous forests)
5. Kalakad Mundanthurai Wild life Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu. >300 (Savanna woodlands, Teak plantations, Semi Evergreen forests)
6. Nilambur North, Malppuram district, Kerala (500-300 m). >1,000 (Semi evergreen, Moist Deciduous, Teak Plantations)
7. Silent Valley National PArk, Palghat, Kerala (500-300 m). >200 (Teak plantations, Moist Deciduous and Riparian)
8. Idukki district, Kerala.
9. Achenkovil forests, South Kerala (300 m), >500 (Teak plantations, Moist deciduous, Semi evergreen and Riparian)
10. Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala. >200 (Semi evergreen, moist deciduous and Areca plantations)
11. Melkote Wolf Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka. (500-300 m). <1,500 individuals (Scrub forests)
12 Chamundi hills, Karnataka. >100 individuals. (Scrub forests)
The total population size is unknown.
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species typically occurs in fairly dense, seasonally dry scrubby woodlands in hilly areas. Plants are also found in rocky areas (dried stream beds). Many trees in this habitat lose their leaves in the dry season, and C. circinalis is also facultatively deciduous in extremely dry times. Populations may also occur in taller moist forests. It appears to be an adaptable species with colonies extending from rocky hill outcrops down to coastal habitats at sea level.|
|Major Threat(s):||Land clearing is thought to have destroyed more than 50% of the original habitat of C. circinalis. Harvesting of cycad leaves for the urban floricultural market may also have an impact on this species. There is evidently medicinal properties in the leaves and pith of stem. Large and old specimens are ruthlessly hacked down for the extraction of pith. Seeds are harvested and used for food as a regular part of the diet.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix II of the CITES Appendices. Populations occur in the Melkote Temple Wildlife Sanctuary in Karnataka and the Niligri Biosphere Reserve located in the Western Ghats. The Tropical Botanical Garden and Research Institute (TBGRI) near Palode in Kerala was identified as an alternate centre for ex situ conservation of cycads.|
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Lindström, A.J. and Hill, K.D. 2007. The genus Cycas (Cycadaceae) in India. Telopea 11(4): 463–488.
Mysore Amateur Naturalists. 2004. Project Cycas . Available at: http://www.geocities.com/mysoreamateurnaturalists/man/cycas.html.
Prathapan, K.D. 2006. Conservation of cycads in India. Current Science 91(7): 862-863.
Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
|Citation:||Varghese, A., Krishnamurthy, V., Garnesan, R. & Manu, K. 2010. Cycas circinalis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 October 2014.|
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