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Encephalartos ferox 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos ferox G.Bertol
Common Name(s):
English Zululand Cycad, Kozi Cycad, Tongaland Cycad
Synonym(s):
Encephalartos kosiensis Hutch.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Justification:
Large populations occur from northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa to at least as far north as Inhambane in Mozambique. However, this species needs to be monitored as numerous plants have been removed and sold alongside roads in Mozambique and large tracts of habitat have been destroyed. Overall decline could increase to >30% over three generations in which case it would qualify as Vulnerable under criterion A2.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:E. ferox is a widespread species occurring in northern Kwa-Zulu Natal province of South Africa and southern Mozambique, where it is found in the Maputo, Gaza, Inhambane and Sofala provinces. Occurs at low elevations between 20 and 100 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:10
Lower elevation limit (metres):20
Upper elevation limit (metres):100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:A relatively abundant species where it occurs.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:100000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:The habitats of this species range from closed evergreen coastal forest to dense shrubland, on deep sands of old beach dune systems. They also occur in grassland areas.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The major threats affecting this species include over-collecting for ornamental purposes and habitat destruction due to current and future coastal developments and for agricultural purposes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations of E. ferox are present in the Maputaland Coastal Forest Reserve, the Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park and the Tembe Elephant Park.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
13. Marine Coastal/Supratidal -> 13.3. Marine Coastal/Supratidal - Coastal Sand Dunes
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
0. Root -> 4. Other

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Hill, K.D. and Stevenson, D.W. 1998 - 2006. The Cycad Pages. Available at: http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au/PlantNet/cycad/index.html.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Osborne, R. 1987. Focus on Encephalartos ferox. Encephalartos 9: 14-21.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.


Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos ferox. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41943A10607271. . Downloaded on 20 November 2017.
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