Encephalartos cycadifolius 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos cycadifolius (Jacq.) Lehm.
Common Name(s):
English Winterberg Cycad
Encephalartos eximius I.Verd.
Zamia cycadifolia Jacq.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Although the species occurs has a relatively small extent of occurrence (290 km²), it is very abundant (more than 20,000 matureplants) and adult plants showed almost no mortality over a ten year period of survey work.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is restricted to the Winterberg mountains to the north of Bedford in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Recorded from 1,200 to 1,800 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:100
Number of Locations:7
Lower elevation limit (metres):1200
Upper elevation limit (metres):1800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:There are at least six subpopulations and all of these are healthy and viable. Donaldson and co-workers counted/estimated a population size of more than 20,000 plants based on sub-sampling.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:20000-30000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species grows in semi-dry grassland areas in shallow shale soils on the northern and eastern slopes of the mountains. E. cycadifolius is adapted to fire.
Generation Length (years):500

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Baboons and porcupines can sometimes damage cones and newly emerged leaves of this species. Too frequent fires may have an effect on seedlings and juveniles.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Grobbelaar, N. 2002. CYCADS - with special reference to the southern African species. Privately published by Nat Grobbelaar, Pretoria, South Africa.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Kemp, M. 1991. Focus on Encephalartos cycadifolius. Encephalartos 26: 3-7.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos cycadifolius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41942A10606926. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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