Encephalartos bubalinus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos bubalinus Melville
Common Name(s):
English Lake Natron Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Bösenberg, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
At present the population appears to be stable. However, African cycads have tended to decline rapidly once they become the targets of collectors. The narrow distribution and small number of locations means that it would qualify for Vulnerable under criteria B1a and C1 if populations started to decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in the northern Tanzanian province of Arusha. Populations are found to the West of Lake Natron and south of the town of Loliondo. Recorded from 1,300 to 2,150 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Number of Locations:4
Lower elevation limit (metres):1300
Upper elevation limit (metres):2150
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is very difficult to estimate numbers of plants in the wild due to the inaccessible terrain, but it is estimated that there are in excess of 10,000 plants.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Populations occur in open bushland on quartzite ridges or montane forest with a few scattered trees. The Nguruman hills consist of a series of quartzite hills.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The seeds of this species are eaten during times of famine.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Melville, R. 1957. Encephalartos in Central Africa. Kew Bulletin 12: 237-257.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos bubalinus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41941A10606598. . Downloaded on 18 August 2018.
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