Encephalartos marunguensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos marunguensis Devred
Common Name(s):
English Marungu Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
This is a poorly known species, however, it a appears to qualify for listing as Vulnerable under criterion B1 due to its small extent of occurrence (7,500 km² , occurrence at fewer than ten locations and expected decline due to habitat loss and some collecting.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Populations occur in the Marungu Mountains and on the Muhila plateau in the southeast of the country. Plants are also known from Tanzania, where they occur approximately 100 km to the west of the Marungu locality. Recorded as occurring from 1,400 to 1,700 m.
Countries occurrence:
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the
Additional data:
Number of Locations:10-12
Lower elevation limit (metres):1400
Upper elevation limit (metres):1700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Although poorly known, the population is though to be fairly small with between a 1,000 and 1,200 mature plants.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1000-1200
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species grows in savanna (Miombo woodland) and also in lightly wooded montane forests among granite outcrops.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): E. marunguensis may be threatened by too frequent fires. Poaching from the wild by collectors is also a threat.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Goode, D. 2001. Cycads of Africa. D & E Cycads of Africa, Gallo Manor, Johannesburg, South Africa.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Lisowski, S. and Malaisse, F. 1971. Encephalartos marunguensis Devred, Cycadacée endémique du plateau des Muhila (Katanga, Congo-Kinshasa). Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 41: 357-361.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos marunguensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41936A10604832. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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