Encephalartos longifolius 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos longifolius (Jacq.) Lehm.
Common Name(s):
English Suurberg Cycad, Thunberg's Cycad
Encephalartos lanuginosus (Jacq.) Lehm.
Encephalartos mauritianus Miq.
Zamia lanuginosa Jacq.
Zamia longifolia Jacq.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
The population has declined by about 20% in the past three generations. Would qualify as Vulnerable under criterion B1a if there were fewer localities and as VU under criterion C1 if the lower estimate of population numbers is correct. The species is therefore listed as Near Threatened.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is widely distributed in the Eastern Cape from West of Joubertina in the Kouga mountains, along the Suuranys mountains, in the Baviaans Kloof, the Elandsberge, the Zuurberge and then on to near Grahamstown. Large subpopulations occur in the Kouga Mountains, Baviaanskloof, Groot Winterhoek mountains, and the Zuurberg. Recorded from 200 up to 700 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:2500
Number of Locations:10-12
Lower elevation limit (metres):200
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Occurs in large numbers in some areas.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:7000-15000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in a variety of habitats with large differences in soil and climate. In some areas west of Port Elizabeth plants grow in acid sands with fynbos vegetation whereas in the Zuurberg they occur in grasslands. Near Kirkwood and in the Paardepoort plants grow amongst succulent thicket. Thety are also found in dense scleromorphic shrubland on steep rocky slopes
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The only real threat to E. longifolius is over-collection due to poaching of plants from the wild.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations are protected in the Baviaanskloof Conservation Area, the Groendal Wilderness Area, the Longmore State Forest and in the Addo Elephant Park (Zuurberg area).

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.4. Shrubland - Temperate
4. Grassland -> 4.4. Grassland - Temperate
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Kemp, M. 1985. Focus on Encephalartos longifolius. Encephalartos 1: 6-13.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos longifolius. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41935A10604478. . Downloaded on 19 August 2018.
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