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Encephalartos caffer 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_onStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos caffer (Thunb.) Lehm.
Common Name(s):
English Eastern Cape Dwarf Cycad
Synonym(s):
Encephalartos brachyphyllus Lehm. & De Vriese
Zamia cycadis L.f.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Near Threatened ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Justification:
A widespread species that is difficult to assess due to its low growth form and it is easily missed in surveys. Based on repeat photographs, the species appears to have declined in some areas by about 20% in the past 60 years. So comes close to qualifying for a threatened status under criterion A2 or A4.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found mainly in the Eastern Cape province and in an isolated subpopulation in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. In the Eastern Cape it has been recorded from Humansdorp in the south, then northwards to areas in the Albany district and continuing northwards to an area near Kentani, just across the Great Kei river. Still further to the north, it is found in the Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve in Kwa-Zulu Natal province. The species seems to consist of numerous isolated subpopulations in this area. Recorded from 300 to 700 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
South Africa (Eastern Cape Province, KwaZulu-Natal)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:300
Number of Locations:10-12
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):700
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:8000-10000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species typically grows in grassland but can also occur in thicket when grasslands are not burnt frequently. It is often found growing among rocks.
Systems:Terrestrial
Generation Length (years):35

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The habitat of E. caffer is somewhat threatened as a result of clearing for agricultural purposes. This species has also been affected due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. E. caffer occurs in the Brooklands Cycad Reserve and in the Oribi Gorge Nature Reserve.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.2. Small-holder farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.3. Agro-industry farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.3. Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Goode, D. 1989. Cycads of Africa. Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

Goode, D. 2001. Cycads of Africa. D & E Cycads of Africa, Gallo Manor, Johannesburg, South Africa.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Kemp, M. 1985. Focus on Encephalartos caffer. Encephalartos 3: 6 - 11.

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.


Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos caffer. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41929A10602384. . Downloaded on 19 November 2017.
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