Encephalartos senticosus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos senticosus Vorster
Common Name(s):
English Jozini Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2acd; C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Based on repeat photographs, E. senticosus has declined by >30% at least in parts of its range (near Sitegi in Swaziland and Mkuze in South Africa) during the past 60 years. There is evidence of continuing decline which means that it also qualifies as Vulnerable under criterion C1.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs from south of the Jozini dam in Northern KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa northwards along the Lebombo mountains to just north of Siteki in Swaziland. Plants are also found on the Mozambique side of the border. Recorded from 300 to 800 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal); Swaziland
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:750
Number of Locations:12
Lower elevation limit (metres):300
Upper elevation limit (metres):800
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is thought to number between 5,000 and 10,000 mature individuals and declining.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5000-10000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found on rocky slopes and forest ravines or on dry exposed cliffs in dry shrubby savanna along the Lebombo range.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is primarily threatened due to poaching of plants from the wild.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations are found in the Mkuzi Game Reserve and the Pongolapoort Nature Reserve.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Grobbelaar, N. 2002. CYCADS - with special reference to the southern African species. Privately published by Nat Grobbelaar, Pretoria, South Africa.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and Neighbouring Regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos senticosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41925A10600018. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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