Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos ngoyanus
Species Authority: I.Verd.
Common Name(s):
English Ngoye Cycad, Ngoye Dwarf Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A4acd; C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Rare throughout its range and declining in places such as Ngoye forest. Originally estimated to have declined by 30-40% and continuing, and this does not seem to have changed since the last assessment in 2003.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2003 Vulnerable (VU)
1998 Vulnerable (V)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species has two distribution areas separated by a distance of about 125 km. It occurs mainly in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa and also in Swaziland and Mozambique. In the south it starts at the Ngoye Forest of central KwaZulu-Natal. Further north the distribution follows the Ubombo mountains from about Mkuze river and then northwards along the Lebombo mountains to where the Usutu river cuts through the mountain range. Occurs from 200 to 600 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Mozambique; South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal); Swaziland
Number of Locations: 10-12
Lower elevation limit (metres): 200
Upper elevation limit (metres): 600
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The population size is declining and though to number between 4.300 and 5,000 mature individuals.
Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 4300-5000
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species occurs in open grassland and on forest margins, often among boulders. Plants are often exposed to veld fires.
Systems: Terrestrial
Generation Length (years): 35

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overgrazing and veld fires have taken their toll on wild populations and in addition, over zealous collectors have removed thousands of plants.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations are found in the following reserves: Hlatikulu Forest Reserve, Ngoye Forest Reserve, Greater St. Lucia Wetland Park, Pongolapoort Nature Reserve and the Lebombo Cliffs (Natural heritage Site).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Marginal  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Giddy, C. 1990. Focus on Encephalartos ngoyanus. Encephalartos 23: 3-9.

Golding, J. (ed.). 2002. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Scott-Shaw, C.R. 1999. Rare and Threatened Plants of KwaZulu-Natal and neighbouring regions. KwaZulu-Natal Nature Conservation Services, Pietermaritzburg.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos ngoyanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41920A10596985. . Downloaded on 13 October 2015.
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