Encephalartos manikensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos manikensis (Gilliland) Gilliland
Common Name(s):
English Gorongo Cycad, Gorongowe Cycad
Encephalartos gratus ssp. manikensis Gilliland

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable A2acd ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Although still relatively abundant in some parts of its range, some of the subpopulations have been almost entirely eliminated (e.g. at Elizabethville in Zimbabwe). The uncertain taxonomic status of these subpopulations raises the risk associated with local extinction of some subpopulations due to the impacts of collectors who are keen to have these potentially "new" species in their collections. Listed as Vulnerable on the basis of at least a 30% population decline in the past three generations (mostly in the last 50 years).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, where most of the plants are found in the highlands of the Mapande Range. In the south from Mount Selinda in Zimbabwe northwards through the Chipinge area , near Mount Nyanyadzi, along the Odzi and Garezi rivers and on to Mount Gorongo (incorrectly named Mount Gorongowe in the literature) and further north to Mount Darwin (Pfura/Fura). The type locality is the Numkwarara (Nyamkwarara) Valley near Mount Gorongo. In Mozambique plants are found near Garuso, Mount Bandula, Mount Chicamba, near Vanduzi and Mount Chinhazanza (Chinyayadze/Chinyazange) near the Pungwe (Pungoe/Pungue) river. Recorded from 600 to 1,400 m asl.

There is considerable variation between populations from different sites and this has raised questions about the taxonomy of these populations. Capela (2006) argues that there could be as many as five species but taxonomists have not been able to discern consistent characters to define these possible species.
Countries occurrence:
Mozambique; Zimbabwe
Additional data:
Number of Locations:12
Lower elevation limit (metres):600
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population size of E. manikensis is estimated to be less than 10,000 mature individuals. Some subpopulations are still quite large, especially in Mozambique. However, other subpopulations have declined substantially.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:10000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is usually found on grassy slopes on large granite inselbergs and also in river valleys in places associated with forests.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): E. manikensis is primarily threatened by the poaching of wild plants for ornamental purposes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations of E. manikensis occur in the Nyanga National Park in Zimbabwe.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Capela, P. 2006. Speculations on the Encephalartos species of Mozambique. Pedro Capela, Chimoio, Mozambique.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Osborne, R. 1994. Focus on Encephalartos manikensis. Encephalartos 38: 4-11.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos manikensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41919A10596129. . Downloaded on 24 September 2018.
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