|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos manikensis (Gilliland) Gilliland|
Encephalartos gratus ssp. manikensis Gilliland
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2acd ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
Although still relatively abundant in some parts of its range, some of the subpopulations have been almost entirely eliminated (e.g. at Elizabethville in Zimbabwe). The uncertain taxonomic status of these subpopulations raises the risk associated with local extinction of some subpopulations due to the impacts of collectors who are keen to have these potentially "new" species in their collections. Listed as Vulnerable on the basis of at least a 30% population decline in the past three generations (mostly in the last 50 years).
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species occurs in Zimbabwe and Mozambique, where most of the plants are found in the highlands of the Mapande Range. In the south from Mount Selinda in Zimbabwe northwards through the Chipinge area , near Mount Nyanyadzi, along the Odzi and Garezi rivers and on to Mount Gorongo (incorrectly named Mount Gorongowe in the literature) and further north to Mount Darwin (Pfura/Fura). The type locality is the Numkwarara (Nyamkwarara) Valley near Mount Gorongo. In Mozambique plants are found near Garuso, Mount Bandula, Mount Chicamba, near Vanduzi and Mount Chinhazanza (Chinyayadze/Chinyazange) near the Pungwe (Pungoe/Pungue) river. Recorded from 600 to 1,400 m asl.|
There is considerable variation between populations from different sites and this has raised questions about the taxonomy of these populations. Capela (2006) argues that there could be as many as five species but taxonomists have not been able to discern consistent characters to define these possible species.
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size of E. manikensis is estimated to be less than 10,000 mature individuals. Some subpopulations are still quite large, especially in Mozambique. However, other subpopulations have declined substantially.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is usually found on grassy slopes on large granite inselbergs and also in river valleys in places associated with forests.|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Major Threat(s):||E. manikensis is primarily threatened by the poaching of wild plants for ornamental purposes.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Populations of E. manikensis occur in the Nyanga National Park in Zimbabwe.|
Capela, P. 2006. Speculations on the Encephalartos species of Mozambique. Pedro Capela, Chimoio, Mozambique.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.
Osborne, R. 1994. Focus on Encephalartos manikensis. Encephalartos 38: 4-11.
Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
|Citation:||Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos manikensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41919A10596129.Downloaded on 18 January 2018.|
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