Encephalartos macrostrobilus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos macrostrobilus Scott Jones & J.Wynants

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(iii,iv,v); C2a(i) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Previously this species was listed as Vulnerable due to relatively low levels of decline, but it satisfies the criteria for listing as Endangered based on the small estimated population size of only 200-300 individuals, the small extent of occurrence (50 km²) and the number of locations (two) plus the continuing decline in quality and extent of habitat plus loss of individual plants.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species occurs in northwestern Uganda in the Madi area. Populations are found near the town of Moyo. Occurs at 900 to 1,400 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:2
Lower elevation limit (metres):900
Upper elevation limit (metres):1400
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The population is thought to be fairly small comprising only 200 to 300 mature individuals.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:200-300
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:E. macrostrobilus occurs in degraded savanna on sandy lithosols with rock slopes along seasonal watercourses. Plants grow in partial shade.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The area where E. macrostrobilus occurs is heavily grazed and fuel wood and timber are collected from the habitat. Regular fires to produce new grazing may adversely affect recruitment. There is also the usual problem of poaching of plants from the wild by collectors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.2. Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, S. and Wynants, J. 1997. Encephalartos macrostrobilus (Zamiaceae), a new cycad species from northern Uganda. Encephalartos 50: 13-17.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos macrostrobilus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41918A10595573. . Downloaded on 15 August 2018.
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