Encephalartos tegulaneus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos tegulaneus Melville
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Kenyan Giant Cycad
Taxonomic Notes: This species has two subspecies. E. tegulaneus ssp. tegulaneus and E. tegulaneus ssp. powysii.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Bösenberg, J.D. & Victor, J.
The species comprises two subspecies, of which E. tegulaneus ssp. powsii is assessed as Critically Endangered based on its very limited distribution and decline due to collecting. However, the other subspecies is abundant across a wide range and does not appear to be declining. The species as a whole is therefore assessed as Least Concern.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Kenya. Plants occur in the Eastern province near Embu and on the Matthews Range in the Rift Valley province. Occurs from 1,400 up to 2,300 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:13
Lower elevation limit (metres):1400
Upper elevation limit (metres):2300
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Considered to be abundant and conservatively estimated to number between 5,000 and 10,000 individuals.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:5000-10000
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species occurs in rocky sites and on steep mountain slopes in dense thicket and in thick dry forest.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is secure in most of its range. One location is threatened by over-collection for ornamental purposes and traditionally hollowed-out stems have been used as cattle drinking troughs.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Specimens occur in the Namunyak Wildlife Conservation Trust, which is a Rural Community Development Project.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Goode, D. 1989. Cycads of Africa. Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

Goode, D. 2001. Cycads of Africa. D & E Cycads of Africa, Gallo Manor, Johannesburg, South Africa.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Melville, R. 1957. Encephalartos in Central Africa. Kew Bulletin 12: 237-257.

Miringu, B.W. and Beentje, H. 1999. Encephalartos tegulaneus subsp. powysii (Zamiaceae): a new cycad from central Kenya. Journal of East African Natural History 88: 35-39.

Osborne, R. 1995. The Heenan expeditions revisited. Encephalartos 43: 16-23.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos tegulaneus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41911A10591971. . Downloaded on 22 September 2018.
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