Encephalartos concinnus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos concinnus R.A.Dyer & I.Verd.
Common Name(s):
English Runde Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered A2acd; B1ab(iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Donaldson, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.
Thought to have declined by about 50% up to the 1990s, when at least one subpopulation was substantially reduced. Appeared to be more stable in the late 1990s when one subpopulation was protected in a private game conservancy and a second was difficult to access without permission from tribal authorities. However, the impact of recent land redistribution activities on populations of E. concinnus is unknown. Qualifies as Endangered based on a >50% decline within 90 years and its relatively small extent of occurrence and area of occupancy.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is found in three localities in southern Zimbabwe in the provinces of Matabeleland South, Midlands and Masvingo. They are referred to as the Gwanda, the Mberengwa and the Runde subpopulations. Unconfirmed reports indicate that the Runde subpopulation no longer exists. Recorded to occur between 800 and 900 m asl.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:30
Number of Locations:3
Lower elevation limit (metres):800
Upper elevation limit (metres):900
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Surveys of the known populations indicate that there are ca. 50 mature plants in the location at Gwanda (West Nicolson) and at least 160 mature plants at Mberengwa (only plants in accessible areas were counted).
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:210-500
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:E. concinnus occurs on dry steep-sided rocky valleys with scattered trees. They are also found among granite boulders or on steep cliffs, where they grow among grass or under small trees. The habitat is subject to frequent night and morning mists. These plants do not tolerate frost. E. concinnus occurs in Bushveld and Miombo woodlands.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species has been adversely affected due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes. Recent reports indicate the the subpopulation at Mberengwa has been targeted by cycad collectors (Kimberly et al. 2008). In addition, the leaves of this species have been used by local people to make sleeping mats. This has caused the death of some old established plants.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Some of these plants were protected in a private conservation concession near West Nicolson but there has been substantial redistribution of land in Zimbabwe and the status of the reserve is unknown.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Kimberley, M., Thackray, M. and Spindler, M. 2008. Zimbawe's only endemic cycad: Encephalartos concinnus. Encephalartos 94: 18-21.

Olson, D.M. and Dinerstein, E. 2002. The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 125-126.

Osborne, R. 1993. Focus on Encephalartos concinnus. Encephalartos 34: 4-11.

Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.

Citation: Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos concinnus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41903A10586667. . Downloaded on 19 September 2018.
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