|Scientific Name:||Encephalartos concinnus R.A.Dyer & I.Verd.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2acd; B1ab(iii,iv,v)+2ab(ii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Agenbag, L. & Bösenberg, J.D.|
Thought to have declined by about 50% up to the 1990s, when at least one subpopulation was substantially reduced. Appeared to be more stable in the late 1990s when one subpopulation was protected in a private game conservancy and a second was difficult to access without permission from tribal authorities. However, the impact of recent land redistribution activities on populations of E. concinnus is unknown. Qualifies as Endangered based on a >50% decline within 90 years and its relatively small extent of occurrence and area of occupancy.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||This species is found in three localities in southern Zimbabwe in the provinces of Matabeleland South, Midlands and Masvingo. They are referred to as the Gwanda, the Mberengwa and the Runde subpopulations. Unconfirmed reports indicate that the Runde subpopulation no longer exists. Recorded to occur between 800 and 900 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Surveys of the known populations indicate that there are ca. 50 mature plants in the location at Gwanda (West Nicolson) and at least 160 mature plants at Mberengwa (only plants in accessible areas were counted).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||E. concinnus occurs on dry steep-sided rocky valleys with scattered trees. They are also found among granite boulders or on steep cliffs, where they grow among grass or under small trees. The habitat is subject to frequent night and morning mists. These plants do not tolerate frost. E. concinnus occurs in Bushveld and Miombo woodlands.|
|Generation Length (years):||70|
|Major Threat(s):||This species has been adversely affected due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes. Recent reports indicate the the subpopulation at Mberengwa has been targeted by cycad collectors (Kimberly et al. 2008). In addition, the leaves of this species have been used by local people to make sleeping mats. This has caused the death of some old established plants.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices. Some of these plants were protected in a private conservation concession near West Nicolson but there has been substantial redistribution of land in Zimbabwe and the status of the reserve is unknown.|
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Kimberley, M., Thackray, M. and Spindler, M. 2008. Zimbawe's only endemic cycad: Encephalartos concinnus. Encephalartos 94: 18-21.
Olson, D.M. and Dinerstein, E. 2002. The Global 200: Priority ecoregions for global conservation. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 89: 125-126.
Osborne, R. 1993. Focus on Encephalartos concinnus. Encephalartos 34: 4-11.
Whitelock, L.M. 2002. The Cycads. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
|Citation:||Donaldson, J.S. 2010. Encephalartos concinnus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41903A10586667.Downloaded on 19 November 2017.|
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