Encephalartos chimanimaniensis 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Cycadopsida Cycadales Zamiaceae

Scientific Name: Encephalartos chimanimaniensis R.A.Dyer & I.Verd.
Common Name(s):
English Chimanimani Cycad

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iv,v); C1 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-31
Assessor(s): Bösenberg, J.D.
Reviewer(s): Donaldson, J.S. & Hilton-Taylor, C.
Despite slightly higher numbers than estimated in 2003, E. chimanimaniensis still qualifies for an Endangered status based on its extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, continuing decline, and the estimated number of locations with viable subpopulations, as well the small population size and reports of continuing decline due to the impacts of collectors.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known only from the Chimanimani Mountains on the border between Zimbabwe and Mozambique. The populations from which the species was first described appear to be extinct, but new populations have been discovered over the past few years in the mountainous terrain between Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Occurs at altitudes of about 1,000 m.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Number of Locations:5
Upper elevation limit (metres):1000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It was originally thought to be possibly be extinct in the wild due to the disappearance of populations in Zimbabwe, but additional populations were found along the Zimbabwe - Mozambique border. At the time of the 2003 assessment, these were estimated as between 500 and 1,000 plants. Capela (2006) estimates that there are 1,200 mature plants in a subpopulation at Makurupini and a further 300 at Morambo as well as several other small subpopulations.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals:1000-1500
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:E. chimanimaniensis grows in high rainfall (can be in excess of 1,800 mm annually) montane grassland on granite mountains. Plants are associated with schist and quartzite.
Generation Length (years):70

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is threatened due to over-collecting for ornamental purposes.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed on Appendix I of the CITES Appendices.

Classifications [top]

4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.1. Captive breeding/artificial propagation
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

♦  Establishing ex-situ production *

Bibliography [top]

Capela, P. 2006. Speculations on the Encephalartos species of Mozambique. Pedro Capela, Chimoio, Mozambique.

Golding, J. (ed.). 2002. Southern African Plant Red Data Lists. Southern African Botanical Diversity Network.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Jones, D.L. 2002. Cycads of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Citation: Bösenberg, J.D. 2010. Encephalartos chimanimaniensis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T41902A10586060. . Downloaded on 21 September 2018.
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